Volume 89, Issue 1
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645



Evidence on the effectiveness of insecticide-treated curtains (ITCs) for reducing densities of mosquitoes, the principal vectors of dengue, is scarce. In Laem Chabang southeast of Bangkok, Thailand, the Breteau Index (BI) (number of positive containers/100 houses) was 45 in October 2006. In March 2007, we distributed long-lasting ITCs in 22 clusters (2,032 houses) and selected 66 control clusters (661 houses). Routine control activities continued in all clusters. Six months after distribution, the BI was 25.8 and 77.6 in intervention and control areas, respectively ( < 0.001). Eighteen months after distribution, the BI was 21.8 and 23.8, respectively ( = 0.28). The average number of ITCs/house at cluster level was associated with the BI ( < 0.01) after six months, when 70.5% of households still used ITCs, but not at 18 months, when ITC coverage had decreased to 33.2%. Deployment of ITCs can result in considerable reductions in infestation levels, but the effect is coverage dependent.


Article metrics loading...

The graphs shown below represent data from March 2017
Loading full text...

Full text loading...



  1. Deen JL, Harris E, Wills B, Balmaseda A, Hammond SN, Rocha C, Dung NM, Hung NT, Hien TT, Farrar JJ, , 2006. The WHO dengue classification and case definitions: time for a reassessment. Lancet 368: 170173.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  2. Gibbons RV, Vaughn DW, , 2002. Dengue: an escalating problem. BMJ 324: 15631566.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  3. World Health Organization. 2012. Global Strategy for Dengue Prevention and Control, 2012–2020. Geneva: World Health Organization. [Google Scholar]
  4. Sabchareon A, Wallace D, Sirivichayakul C, Limkittikul K, Chanthavanich P, Suvannadabba S, Jiwariyavej V, Dulyachai W, Pengsaa K, Wartel TA, Moureau A, Saville M, Bouckenoughe A, Viviani S, Torniporth NG, Lang J, , 2012. Protective efficacy of the recombinant, live-attenuated, CYD tetravalent dengue vaccine in Thai schoolchildren: a randomised, controlled phase 2b trial. Lancet 380: 15591567.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  5. Morrison AC, Zielinski-Gutierrez E, Scott TW, Rosenberg R, , 2008. Defining challenges and proposing solutions for control of the virus vector Aedes aegypti . PLoS Med 5: e68.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  6. Luz PM, Vanni T, Medlock J, Paltiel AD, Galvani AP, , 2011. Dengue vector control strategies in an urban setting: an economic modelling assessment. Lancet 377: 16731680.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  7. Castro M, Quintana N, Quinones PM, , 2007. Evaluating two pyrethroids in dengue vector control in Putumayo, Colombia [in Spanish]. Rev Salud Publica (Bogota) 9: 106116.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  8. Mani TR, Arunachalam N, Rajendran R, Satyanarayana K, Dash AP, , 2005. Efficacy of thermal fog application of deltacide, a synergized mixture of pyrethroids, against Aedes aegypti, the vector of dengue. Trop Med Int Health 10: 12981304.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  9. Reiter P, Gubler DJ, Gubler DJ, Kuno G, , 1997. Surveillance and control of urban dengue vectors. , eds. Dengue and Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever. New York: CAB International, 425463. [Google Scholar]
  10. Esu E, Lenhart A, Smith L, Horstick O, , 2010. Effectiveness of peridomestic space spraying with insecticide on dengue transmission; systematic review. Trop Med Int Health 15: 619631. [Google Scholar]
  11. Perich MJ, Kardec A, Braga IA, Portal IF, Burge R, Zeichner BC, Brogdon WA, Wirtz RA, , 2003. Field evaluation of a lethal ovitrap against dengue vectors in Brazil. Med Vet Entomol 17: 205210.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  12. Williams CR, Ritchie SA, Long SA, Dennison N, Russell RC, , 2007. Impact of a bifenthrin-treated lethal ovitrap on Aedes aegypti oviposition and mortality in north Queensland, Australia. J Med Entomol 44: 256262.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  13. Kroeger A, Lenhart A, Ochoa M, Villegas E, Levy M, Alexander N, McCall PJ, , 2006. Effective control of dengue vectors with curtains and water container covers treated with insecticide in Mexico and Venezuela: cluster randomised trials. BMJ 332: 12471252.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  14. Seng CM, Setha T, Nealon J, Chantha N, Socheat D, Nathan MB, , 2008. The effect of long-lasting insecticidal water container covers on field populations of Aedes aegypti (L.) mosquitoes in Cambodia. J Vector Ecol 33: 333341.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  15. Vanlerberghe V, Villegas E, Oviedo M, Baly A, Lenhart A, McCall PJ, Van der Stuyft P, , 2011. Evaluation of the effectiveness of insecticide treated materials for household level dengue vector control. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 5: e994.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  16. TDR, 2006. Report of the Scientific Working Group Meeting on Dengue. Geneva, October 1–5, 2006. TDR/SWG/08. Geneva: World Health Organization. [Google Scholar]
  17. Lenhart A, Trongtokit Y, Alexander N, Apiwathnasorn C, Satimai W, Vanlerberghe V, Van der Stuyft P, McCall PJ, , 2012. A cluster randomized trial of insecticide treated curtains for dengue vector control in Thailand. Am J Trop Med Hyg 88: 254259.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  18. Ponlawat A, Scott JG, Harrington LC, , 2005. Insecticide susceptibility of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus across Thailand. J Med Entomol 42: 821825.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  19. Tsuda Y, Suwonkerd W, Chawprom S, Prajakwong S, Takagi M, , 2006. Different spatial distribution of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus along an urban-rural gradient and the relating environmental factors examined in three villages in northern Thailand. J Am Mosq Control Assoc 22: 222228.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  20. Vanlerberghe V, Villegas E, Jirarojwatana S, Santana N, Trongtorkit Y, Jirarojwatana R, Srisupap W, Lefevre P, Van der Stuyft P, , 2011. Determinants of uptake, short-term and continued use of insecticide-treated curtains and jar covers for dengue control. Trop Med Int Health 16: 162173.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  21. Tun-Lin W, Lenhart A, Nam VS, Rebollar-Tellez E, Morrison AC, Barbazan P, Cote M, Midega J, Sanchez F, Manrique-Saide P, Kroeger A, Nathan MB, Meheus F, Petzold M, , 2009. Reducing costs and operational constraints of dengue vector control by targeting productive breeding places: a multi-country non-inferiority cluster randomized trial. Trop Med Int Health 14: 11431153.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  22. Hayes RJ, Bennett S, , 1999. Simple sample size calculation for cluster-randomized trials. Int J Epidemiol 28: 319326.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  23. World Health Organization, 2001. Instructions for Determining the Susceptibility or Resistance of Adult Mosquitoes to Organochlorine, Organophosphate and Carbamate Insecticides - Diagnostic Test. WHO/VBC/81.806. Geneva: World Health Organization. [Google Scholar]
  24. World Health Organization, 1998. Test Procedures for Insecticide Resistance Monitoring in Malaria Vectors, Bioefficacy and Persistence of Insecticides on Treated Surfaces. Report of the WHO Informal Consultation. Geneva: World Health Organization. [Google Scholar]
  25. Arredondo-Jimenez JI, Valdez-Delgado KM, , 2006. Aedes aegypti pupal/demographic surveys in southern Mexico: consistency and practicality. Ann Trop Med Parasitol 100 (Suppl 1): S17S32.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  26. Focks DA, Chadee DD, , 1997. Pupal survey: an epidemiologically significant surveillance method for Aedes aegypti: an example using data from Trinidad. Am J Trop Med Hyg 56: 159167. [Google Scholar]
  27. Vanlerberghe V, Trongtokit Y, Cremonini L, Jirarojwatana S, Apiwathnasorn C, Van der Stuyft P, , 2010. Residual insecticidal activity of long-lasting deltamethrin-treated curtains after 1 year of household use for dengue control. Trop Med Int Health 15: 10671071.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  28. Erlanger TE, Keiser J, Utzinger J, , 2008. Effect of dengue vector control interventions on entomological parameters in developing countries: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Med Vet Entomol 22: 203221.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  29. Yoon IK, Getis A, Aldstadt J, Rothman AL, Tannitisupawong D, Koenraadt CJ, Fansiri T, Jones JW, Morrison AC, Jarman RG, Nisalak A, Mammen MP, Jr Thammapolo S, Srikiatkhachorn A, Green S, Libraty DH, Gibbons RV, Endy T, Pimgate C, Scott TW, , 2012. Fine scale spatiotemporal clustering of dengue virus transmission in children and Aedes aegypti in rural Thai villages. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 6: e1730.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  30. Kilian A, Byamukama W, Pigeon O, Atieli F, Duchon S, Phan C, , 2008. Long-term field performance of a polyester-based long-lasting insecticidal mosquito net in rural Uganda. Malar J 7: 49.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  31. Castro M, Sanchez L, Perez D, Carbonell N, Lefevre P, Vanlerberghe V, Van der Stuyft P, , 2012. A community empowerment strategy embedded in a routine dengue vector control programme: a cluster randomised controlled trial. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 106: 315321.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  32. Morrison AC, Gray K, Getis A, Astete H, Sihuincha M, Focks D, Watts D, Stancil JD, Olson JG, Blair P, Scott TW, , 2004. Temporal and geographic patterns of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) production in Iquitos, Peru. J Med Entomol 41: 11231142.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  33. Scott TW, Morrison AC, Lorenz LH, Clark GG, Strickman D, Kittayapong P, Zhou H, Edman JD, , 2000. Longitudinal studies of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) in Thailand and Puerto Rico: population dynamics. J Med Entomol 37: 7788.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  34. Toledo Romani ME, Vanlerberghe V, Perez D, Lefevre P, Ceballos E, Bandera D, Baly A, Van der Stuyft P, , 2007. Achieving sustainability of community-based dengue control in Santiago de Cuba. Soc Sci Med 64: 976988.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  35. Baly A, Flessa S, Cote M, Thiramanus T, Vanlerberghe V, Villegas E, Jirarojwatana S, Van der Stuyft P, , 2011. The cost of routine Aedes aegypti control and of insecticide-treated curtain implementation. Am J Trop Med Hyg 84: 747752.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  36. Corbel V, Akogbeto M, Damien GB, Djenontin A, Chandre F, Rogier C, Moiroux N, Chabi J, Banganna B, Padonou GG, Henry MC, , 2012. Combination of malaria vector control interventions in pyrethroid resistance area in Benin: a cluster randomised controlled trial. Lancet Infect Dis 12: 617626.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]

Data & Media loading...

  • Received : 10 Jan 2013
  • Accepted : 19 Feb 2013
  • Published online : 10 Jul 2013

Most Cited This Month

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error