1921
Volume 89, Issue 3
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645

Abstract

Abstract.

A cross-sectional, community-based study was performed in 2012 with 428 residents of periurban shantytowns in Lima, Peru to study risk factors for and changes in latent tuberculosis infection in age-stratified groups compared with our data from the same region in 1990 ( = 219) and 2005 ( = 103). Tuberculin skin test positivity in these communities was highly prevalent at 52% overall, increased with age ( < 0.01) and was similar to 2005 (53%) and 1990 (48%). From 1990 to 2012, the prevalence of tuberculin positivity decreased in 5–14 and 15–24 year old groups (to 17% and 34%, respectively, both < 0.05). However, this may be explained by cessation of Bacille Calmette-Guérin revaccination during this period, because Bacille Calmette-Guérin revaccination doubled tuberculin positivity. Over the same 22-year period, tuberculin positivity in the ≥ 25 year old group remained high (71%, = 0.3), suggesting that prevalent latent tuberculosis infection persists in the adult population despite improving medical care and socioeconomic development in this region.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.13-0005
2013-09-04
2017-11-23
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/14761645/89/3/507.html?itemId=/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.13-0005&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. World Health Organization, 2012. Global Tuberculosis Report 2012. Available at: http://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/10665/75938/1/9789241564502_eng.pdf. Accessed November 1, 2012.
  2. Saito M, Bautista CT, Gilman RH, Bowering A, Levy MZ, Evans CA, , 2004. The value of counting BCG scars for interpretation of tuberculin skin tests in a tuberculosis hyperendemic shantytown, Peru. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis 8: 842847.
  3. Millet JP, Moreno A, Fina L, Del Baño L, Orcau A, de Olalla PG, Caylà JA, , 2012. Factors that influence current tuberculosis epidemiology [published online ahead of print 8 May 2012]. Eur Spine J. Available at: http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs00586-012-2334-8. Accessed May 21, 2012.
  4. World Health Organization, 2012. Tuberculosis. Available at: http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs104/en/index.html. Accessed July 1, 2012.
  5. Suárez PG, Watt CJ, Alarcón E, Portocarrero J, Zavala D, Canales R, Luelmo F, Espinal MA, Dye C, , 2001. The dynamics of tuberculosis in response to 10 years of intensive control effort in Peru. J Infect Dis 184: 473478.[Crossref]
  6. Sobero RA, Peabody JW, , 2006. Tuberculosis control in Bolivia, Chile, Colombia and Peru: why does incidence vary so much between neighbors? Int J Tuberc Lung Dis 10: 12921295.
  7. Santiago EM, Lawson E, Gillenwater K, Kalangi S, Lescano AG, Du Quella G, Cummings K, Cabrera L, Torres C, Gilman RH, , 2003. A prospective study of Bacillus Calmette-Guérin scar formation and tuberculin skin test reactivity in infants in Lima, Peru. Pediatrics 112: e298.[Crossref]
  8. Raharimanga V, Ratovoson R, Ratsitorahina M, Ramarokoto H, Rasolofo V, Talarmin A, Richard V, , 2012. Tuberculin reactivity in first-year schoolchildren in Madagascar. Trop Med Int Health 17: 871876.[Crossref]
  9. Donald PR, , 2000. Childhood tuberculosis. Curr Opin Pulm Med 6: 187192.[Crossref]
  10. Lockman S, Tappero JW, Kenyon TA, Rumisha D, Huebner RE, Binkin NJ, , 1999. Tuberculin reactivity in a pediatric population with high BCG vaccination coverage. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis 3: 2330.
  11. Pelly TF, Santillan CF, Gilman RH, Cabrera LZ, Garcia E, Vidal C, Zimic MJ, Moore DA, Evans CA, , 2005. Tuberculosis skin testing, anergy and protein malnutrition in Peru. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis 9: 977984.
  12. Madico G, Gilman RH, Checkley W, Cabrera L, Kohlstadt I, Kacena K, , 1995. Community infection ratio as an indicator for tuberculosis control. Lancet 345: 416419.[Crossref]
  13. Getchell WS, Davis CE, Gilman J, Urueta G, Ruiz-Huidobro E, Gilman RH, , 1992. Basic epidemiology of tuberculosis in Peru: a prevalence study of tuberculin sensitivity in a pueblo joven. Am J Trop Med Hyg 47: 721729.
  14. Sandhu G, Battaglia F, Ely BK, Athanasakis D, Montoya R, Valencia T, Gilman RH, Evans CA, Friedland JS, Fernandez-Reyes D, Agranoff DD, , 2012. Discriminating active from latent tuberculosis in patients presenting to community clinics. PLoS ONE 7: e38080.[Crossref]
  15. Loret de Mola C, Stanojevic S, Ruiz P, Gilman RH, Smeeth L, Miranda JJ, , 2011. The effect of rural-to-urban migration on social capital and common mental disorders: PERU MIGRANT study. Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol 47: 967973.[Crossref]
  16. INEI, 2009. Las Migraciones Internas en el Peru: 1993–2007. Lima, Peru: Instituto Nacional de Estadística e Informática, 1185.
  17. World Health Organization, 2012. Global Database on Body Mass Index: An Interactive Surveillance Tool for Monitoring Nutrition Transition. Available at: http://apps.who.int/bmi/index.jsp. Accessed April 1, 2012.
  18. Vidmar S, Carlin J, Hesketh K, Cole T, , 2004. Standardizing anthropometric measures in children and adolescents with new functions for egen. Stata J 4: 5055.
  19. Bouros D, Maltezakis G, Tzanakis N, Tzortzaki E, Siafakas N, , 1992. The role of inexperience in measuring tuberculin skin reaction (Mantoux test) by the pen or palpation technique. Respir Med 86: 219223.[Crossref]
  20. Caviedes L, Moore DA, , 2007. Introducing MODS: a low-cost, low-tech tool for high-performance detection of tuberculosis and multidrug resistant tuberculosis. Indian J Med Microbiol 25: 8788.[Crossref]
  21. Oberhelman RA, Soto-Castellares G, Gilman RH, Caviedes L, Castillo ME, Kolevic L, Del Pino T, Saito M, Salazar-Lindo E, Negron E, Montenegro S, Laguna-Torres VA, Moore DA, Evans CA, , 2010. Diagnostic approaches for pediatric tuberculosis by use of different specimen types, culture methods, and PCR: a prospective case-control study. Lancet Infect Dis 10: 612620.[Crossref]
  22. Moore DA, Evans CA, Gilman RH, Caviedes L, Coronel J, Vivar A, Sanchez E, Piñedo Y, Saravia JC, Salazar C, Oberhelman R, Hollm-Delgado MG, LaChira D, Escombe AR, Friedland JS, , 2006. Microscopic-observation drug-susceptibility assay for the diagnosis of TB. N Engl J Med 355: 15391550.[Crossref]
  23. Caviedes L, Lee TS, Gilman RH, Sheen P, Spellman E, Lee EH, Berg DE, Montengro-James S, , 2000. Rapid, efficient detection and drug susceptibility testing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in sputum by microscopic observation of broth cultures. The Tuberculosis Working Group in Peru. J Clin Microbiol 38: 12031208.
  24. Centers for Disease Control, 2012. Tuberculosis. Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/tb/topic/basics/risk.htm. Accessed April 1, 2012.
  25. Hosmer DW, Lemeshow S, , 2000. Applied Logistic Regression. Second edition. New York: John Wiley & Sons, 143200.[Crossref]
  26. Arnadottir T, Rieder HL, Trebucq A, Waaler HT, , 1996. Guidelines for conducting tuberculin skin test surveys in high prevalence countries. Tuber Lung Dis 77 (Suppl): 120.[Crossref]
  27. Rieder HL, , 1995. Methodological issues in the estimation of the tuberculosis problem from tuberculin surveys. Tuber Lung Dis 76: 114121.[Crossref]
  28. Rockhill B, Newman B, Weinberg C, , 1998. Use and misuse of population attributable fractions. Am J Public Health 88: 1519.[Crossref]
  29. Zhang J, Yu KF, , 1998. What's the relative risk? A method of correcting the odds ratio in cohort studies of common outcomes. JAMA 280: 16901691.[Crossref]
  30. Mori T, Leung CC, , 2010. Tuberculosis in the global aging population. Infect Dis Clin North Am 24: 751768.[Crossref]
  31. Schaaf HS, Collins A, Bekker A, Davies PD, , 2010. Tuberculosis at extremes of age. Respirology 15: 747763.[Crossref]
  32. Chan-Yeung M, Dai DL, Cheung AH, Chan FH, Kam KM, Tam CM, Leung CC, , 2007. Tuberculin skin test reaction and body mass index in old age home residents in Hong Kong. J Am Geriatr Soc 55: 15921597.[Crossref]
  33. Dolin PJ, Raviglione MC, Kochi A, , 1994. Global tuberculosis incidence and mortality during 1990–2000. Bull World Health Organ 72: 213220.
  34. Cruz-Hervert LP, García-García L, Ferreyra-Reyes L, Bobadilla-Del-Valle M, Cano-Arellano B, Canizales-Quintero S, Ferreira-Guerrero E, Báez-Saldaña R, Téllez-Vazquez N, Nava-Mercado A, Juárez-Sandino L, Delgado-Sánchez G, Fuentes-Leyra CA, Montero-Campos R, Martínez-Gamboa RA, Small PM, Sifuentes-Osornio J, Ponce-de-León A, , 2012. Tuberculosis in ageing: high rates, complex diagnosis and poor clinical outcomes. Age Ageing 41: 488495.[Crossref]
  35. Peruvian Ministry of Health, 2006. Estrategia Sanitaria Nacional de Inmunizaciones. Norma tecnica de Inmunizaciones. Lima, Peru: Direccion General de Salud de las Personas, 117.
  36. World Health Organization, 2009. Global Health Observatory. Available at: http://www.who.int/gho/en/. Accessed June 18, 2012.
  37. Menzies R, Vissandjee B, , 1992. Effect of Bacille Calmette-Guérin vaccination on tuberculin reactivity. Am Rev Respir Dis 145: 621625.[Crossref]
  38. Burl S, Adetifa UJ, Cox M, Touray E, Whittle H, McShane H, Rowland-Jones SL, Flanagan KL, , 2010. The tuberculin skin test (TST) is affected by recent BCG vaccination but not by exposure to non-tuberculosis mycobacteria (NTM) during early life. PLoS ONE 5: e12287.[Crossref]
  39. Colditz GA, Brewer TF, Berkey CS, Wilson ME, Buradick E, Fineberg HV, Mosteller F, , 1994. Efficacy of BCG vaccine in the prevention of tuberculosis. Meta-analysis of the published literature. JAMA 271: 698702.[Crossref]
  40. Menzies D, Pai M, Comstock G, , 2007. Meta-analysis: new tests for the diagnosis of latent tuberculosis infection: areas of uncertainty and recommendations for research. Ann Intern Med 146: 340354.[Crossref]
  41. Pai M, Zwerling A, Menzies D, , 2008. Systematic review: T-cell-based assays for the diagnosis of latent tuberculosis infection: an update. Ann Intern Med 149: 177184.[Crossref]
  42. Centers for Disease Control, 2010. Vital signs: state-specific obesity prevalence among adults—United States, 2009. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 59: 951955.
  43. Trowbridge FL, Marks JS, Lopez de Romana G, Madrid S, Bouton TW, Klein PD, , 1987. Body composition of Peruvian children with short stature and high weight-for-height. II. implications for the interpretation for weight-for-height as an indicator of nutritional status. Am J Clin Nutr 46: 411418.
  44. Madico G, Salazar G, McDonald J, Checkley W, Calderon M, Verastegui M, Gilman RH, , 1996. Rates of tetanus protection and transplacental tetanus antibody transfer in pregnant women from different socioeconomic groups in Peru. Clin Diagn Lab Immunol 3: 753755.
  45. Villarino ME, Brennan MJ, Nolan CM, Catanzaro A, Lundergan LL, Bock NN, Jones CL, Wang YC, Burman WJ, , 2000. Comparison testing of current (PPD-S1) and proposed (PPD-S2) reference tuberculin standards. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 161: 11671171.[Crossref]
  46. Tat D, Polenakovik H, Herchline T, , 2005. Comparing interferon-gamma release assay with tuberculin skin test readings at 48–72 hours and 144–168 hours with use of 2 commercial reagents. Clin Infect Dis 40: 246250.[Crossref]
  47. Mehta SR, MacGruder C, Looney D, Johns S, Smith DM, , 2009. Differences in tuberculin reactivity as determined in a veterans administration employee health screening program. Clin Vaccine Immunol 16: 541543.[Crossref]
  48. Gillenwater KA, Sapp SC, Pearce K, Siberry GK, , 2006. Increase in tuberculin skin test converters among health care workers after a change from Tubersol to Aplisol. Am J Infect Control 34: 651654.[Crossref]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.13-0005
Loading
/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.13-0005
Loading

Data & Media loading...

  • Received : 03 Jan 2013
  • Accepted : 20 Jun 2013

Most Cited This Month

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error