Volume 88, Issue 5
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645



Granada virus (GRV), a new phlebovirus within the Naples serocomplex, has been recently described in phlebotomine sandflies from Spain. The presence of anti-GRV immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies was investigated by indirect fluorescence assay (IFA) and neutralization test (NT) in 920 serum samples from the Granada population. By IFA, an overall GRV seroprevalence of 15.8% ( = 145) was observed, significantly increasing up to 65 years. NT was positive in 18% of anti-GRV IFA-positive samples. IgG antibodies against Toscana virus (TOSV), a hyperendemic phlebovirus within Granada province, were detected in 40% of anti-GRV–positive cases. Anti-GRV IgM antibodies were detected in 36 (6.6%) of 547 acute-phase serum samples from individuals with febrile illness, exanthema, and/or acute respiratory infection. All positives were anti-TOSV IgM-negative. GRV may infect humans, with most cases being asymptomatic. The codetection of anti-GRV and anti-TOSV IgG antibodies could be attributable to cross-reactivity or exposure to the same transmission vector.


Article metrics loading...

The graphs shown below represent data from March 2017
Loading full text...

Full text loading...



  1. Navarro JM, Fernández-Roldán C, Pérez-Ruiz M, Sanbonmatsu S, de la Rosa M, Sánchez-Seco MP, , 2004. Meningitis by Toscana virus in Spain: description of 17 cases. Med Clin (Barc) 122: 420422.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  2. Sanbonmatsu-Gámez S, Pérez-Ruiz M, Collao X, Sánchez-Seco MP, Morillas-Márquez F, de la Rosa-Fraile M, Navarro-Mari JM, Tenorio A, , 2005. Toscana virus in Spain. Emerg Infect Dis 11: 17011707.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  3. Serata D, Rapinesi C, Del Casale A, Simonetti A, Mazzarini L, Ambrosi E, Kotzalidis GD, Fensore C, Girardi P, Tatarelli R, , 2011. Personality changes after Toscana virus (TOSV) encephalitis in a 49-year-old man: a case report. Int J Neurosci 121: 165169.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  4. Bartels S, de Boni L, Kretzschmar HA, Heckmann JG, , 2012. Lethal encephalitis caused by the Toscana virus in an elderly patient. J Neurol 259: 175177.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  5. Sanbonmatsu-Gámez S, Pérez-Ruiz M, Palop-Borrás B, Navarro-Marí JM, , 2009. Unusual manifestation of Toscana virus infection, Spain. Emerg Infect Dis 15: 347348.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  6. Tappe D, Schmidt-Chanasit J, Günther S, Ries A, , 2010. Acute Toscana virus infection mimicked by Yersinia-induced reactive arthritis syndrome after journey to Spain. J Clin Virol 47: 104105.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  7. Dionisio D, Esperti F, Vivarelli A, Valassina M, , 2003. Epidemiological, clinical and laboratory aspects of sandfly fever. Curr Opin Infect Dis 16: 383388.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  8. Depaquit J, Grandadam M, Fouque F, Andry PE, Peyrefitte C, , 2010. Arthropod-borne viruses transmitted by Phlebotomine sandflies in Europe: a review. Euro Surveill 15: 19507. [Google Scholar]
  9. Collao X, Palacios G, de Ory F, Sanbonmatsu S, Pérez-Ruiz M, Navarro JM, Molina R, Hutchison SK, Lipkin WI, Tenorio A, Sánchez-Seco MP, , 2010. Granada virus: a natural phlebovirus reassortant of the sandfly fever Naples serocomplex with low seroprevalence in humans. Am J Trop Med Hyg 83: 760765.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  10. Charrel RN, Moureau G, Temmam S, Izri A, , 2009. Massilia virus, a novel Phlebovirus (Bunyaviridae) isolated from sandflies in the Mediterranean. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis 9: 519530.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  11. Grist NR, Bell EJ, Follett EAC, Urquhart GED, Grist NR, Bell EJ, Follett EAC, Urquhart GED, , 1979. Neutralization tests. , eds. Diagnostic Methods in Clinical Virology, 3rd Ed. Oxford, UK: Blackwell Scientific Publications, 8194. [Google Scholar]
  12. Ergünay K, Litzba N, Lo MM, Aydoğan S, Saygan MB, Us D, Weidmann M, Niedrig M, , 2011. Performance of various commercial assays for the detection of Toscana virus antibodies. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis 11: 781787.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  13. Bichaud L, Souris M, Mary C, Ninove L, , 2011. Epidemiologic relationship between Toscana virus infection and Leishmania infantum due to common exposure to Phlebotomus perniciosus sandfly vector. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 5: e1328.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  14. de Ory-Manchón F, Sanz-Moreno JC, Aranguez-Ruiz E, Ramírez-Fernández R, , 2007. Age-dependent seroprevalence of Toscana virus in the Community of Madrid: 1993–1994 and 1999–2000. Enferm Infecc Microbiol Clin 25: 187189.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  15. Nicoletti L, Ciufolini MG, Verani P, , 1996. Sandfly fever viruses in Italy. Arch Virol Suppl 11: 4147. [Google Scholar]
  16. Sánchez-Seco MP, Echevarría JM, Hernández L, Estévez D, Navarro-Marí JM, Tenorio A, , 2003. Detection and identification of Toscana and other phleboviruses by RT-nested-PCR assays with degenerated primers. J Med Virol 71: 140149.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]

Data & Media loading...

  • Received : 05 Dec 2012
  • Accepted : 22 Jan 2013
  • Published online : 01 May 2013

Most Cited This Month

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error