Volume 89, Issue 1
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645



This study was conducted to determine the diagnosis and genotype of in Pinggu district, Beijing. Indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA) was performed to detect -specific immunoglobulin M (IgM) and immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies. Nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and DNA sequencing analysis targeting the -specific gene and 56 kDa protein gene were performed on whole-blood samples from scrub typhus patients. We confirmed that 47 patients were infected with scrub typhus in Pinggu district, Beijing. Representative sequences amplified by primers according to the gene (BJ-PG-2008; GenBank accession No. JQ894502) and the 56 kDa protein gene (PG-56kDa; GenBank accession No. JX843795) both clustered with Kawasaki. PG-56kDa had sequence homology of 100% with TADY12-0308, shandong-XDM2, Neimeng-90, and sdu-1 and sequence homology of 96% with Kawasaki, Taguchi, Oishi, and Kanda. We confirmed the genotype of in Pinggu district, Beijing, as Kawasaki, and the patient in 2008 confirmed in this study was the first patient with confirmed scrub typhus in Beijing.


Article metrics loading...

The graphs shown below represent data from March 2017
Loading full text...

Full text loading...



  1. Kelly D, Fuerst P, Ching W, Richards A, , 2009. Scrub typhus: the geographic distribution of phenotypic and genotypic variants of Orientia tsutsugamushi . Clin Infect Dis 48: 203230.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  2. Lee JH, Lee JH, Chung KM, Kim ES, Kwak YG, Moon C, Lee CS, , 2013. Dynamics of clinical symptoms in patients with scrub typhus. Jpn J Infect Dis 66: 155157.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  3. Fang YR, Huang ZH, Tu CY, Zhang LJ, Ye DQ, Zhu BP, , 2012. Meta-analysis of drug treatment for scrub typhus in Asia. Intern Med 51: 23132320.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  4. Yu ES, Wu GH, , 1995. Epidemiological types of Tsutsugamushi disease in China. Chin J Zoon 11: 1619. [Google Scholar]
  5. Wu GH, , 2000. Epidemiological study on scrub typhus in China—present status and prospects. Chin J Infect Dis 18: 142144. [Google Scholar]
  6. Zhang LJ, Fu XP, Fan MY, , 2005. Research on Rickettsia and epidemiological status of rickettsiosis in China. Chin J Trop Med Parasitol 3: 3742. [Google Scholar]
  7. Zhang SY, Song HB, Liu Y, Li Q, Wang Y, Wu JB, Wan JF, Li GL, Yu CJ, Li XY, Yin WW, Xu Z, Liu B, Zhang Q, Wan KL, Li GC, Fu XP, Zhang JS, He JR, Hai R, Yu DZ, Walker DH, Xu JG, Yu XJ, , 2010. Scrub Typhus in previously unrecognized areas of endemicity in China. J Clin Microbiol 48: 12411244.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  8. Lee JH, Park HS, Jang WJ, Koh SE, Kim JM, Shim SK, Park MY, Kim YW, Kim BJ, Kook YH, Park KH, Lee SH, , 2003. Differentiation of Rickettsiae by groEL gene analysis. J Clin Microbiol 41: 29522960.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  9. Park HS, Lee JH, Jeong EJ, Kim JE, Hong SJ, Park TK, Kim TY, Jang WJ, Park KH, Kim BJ, Kook YH, Lee SH, , 2005. Rapid and simple identification of Orientia tsutsugamushi from other group Rickettsiae by duplex PCR assay using groEL gene. Microbiol Immunol 49: 545549.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  10. Furuya Y, Yoshida Y, Katayama T, Yamamoto S, Kawamura A, Jr, 1993. Serotype-specific amplification of Rickettsia tsutsugamushi DNA by nested polymerase chain reaction. J Clin Microbiol 31: 16371640. [Google Scholar]
  11. Kim DM, Yun NR, Yang TY, Lee JH, Yang JT, Shim SK, Choi EN, Park MY, Lee SH, , 2006. Usefulness of nested PCR for the diagnosis of Scrub Typhus in clinical practice: a prospective study. Am J Trop Med Hyg 75: 542545. [Google Scholar]
  12. Enatsu T, Urakami H, Tamura A, , 1999. Phylogenetic analysis of Orientia tsutsugamushi strains based on the sequence homologies of 56-kDa type-specific antigen genes. FEMS Microbiol Lett 180: 163169.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  13. Yu CS, Zhang ZL, Luo YQ, Zhang Y, Liu ZY, Cong BQ, Liu ZY, Sun ZZ, Wang CL, Fan LH, Zhang CS, Chen LH, , 1992. Report on first finding an epidemic of scrub typhus in north rural areas, Tianjin. Chin J Epidemiol 13: 212215. [Google Scholar]
  14. Chen SL, Li GY, Li CM, Kong LY, Guo YX, Zuo PJ, Xu JH, Ji XY, , 2000. First report of Tsutsugamushi disease in Hebei province: a preliminary study. Chin J Vector Biol Control 11: 213215. [Google Scholar]
  15. Fu XP, Liu YY, Zhang BH, Wang JQ, Zhang JS, He JR, Zhang SY, , 2011. Laboratory confirmation of scrub typhus outbreak in Pinggu district, Beijing. Chin J Vector Biol Control 22: 137140. [Google Scholar]
  16. Liu YY, Zhang X, Bai XQ, Zhang XS, , 2009. Analysis of 24 misdiagnosed cases of scrub typhus in Beijing. Capital Medicine 16: 5455. [Google Scholar]
  17. La Scola B, Raoult D, , 1997. Laboratory diagnosis of rickettsioses: current approaches to diagnosis of old and new rickettsial diseases. J Clin Microbiol 35: 27152727. [Google Scholar]
  18. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2012. CDC Health Information for International Travel 2012: The Yellow Book. Available at: http://wwwnc.cdc.gov/travel/yellowbook/2012/chapter-3-infectious-diseases-related-to-travel/rickettsial-spotted-and-typhus-fevers-and-related-infections-anaplasmosis-and-ehrlichiosis.htm. Accessed December 3, 2012. [Google Scholar]
  19. Ree HI, Kim TE, Lee IY, Jeon SH, Hwang UW, Chang WH, , 2001. Determination and geographical distribution of Orientia tsutsugamushi serotypes in KOREA by nested polymerase chain reaction. Am J Trop Med Hyg 65: 528534. [Google Scholar]
  20. Ohashi N, Nashimoto H, Ikeda H, Tamura A, , 1992. Diversity of immunodominant 56-kDa type- specific antigen (TSA) of Rickettsia tsutsugamushi . J Biol Chem 267: 1272812735. [Google Scholar]
  21. Lee YM, Kim DM, Lee SH, Jang MS, Neupane GP, , 2011. Phylogenetic analysis of the 56 kDa protein genes of Orientia tsutsugamushi in southwest area of Korea. Am J Trop Med Hyg 84: 250254.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  22. Fournier PE, Siritantikorn S, Rolain JM, Suputtamongkol Y, Hoontrakul S, Charoenwat S, Losuwanaluk K, Parola P, Raoult D, , 2008. Detection of new genotypes of Orientia tsutsugamushi infecting humans in Thailand. Clin Microbiol Infect 14: 168173.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  23. Ohashi N, Nashimoto H, Ikeda H, Tamura A, , 1990. Cloning and sequencing of the gene (tsg56) encoding a type-specific antigen from Rickettsia tsutsugamushi . Gene 91: 119122.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  24. Stover CK, Marana DP, Carter JM, Roe BA, Mardis E, Oaks EV, , 1990. The 56-kilodalton major protein antigen of Rickettsia tsutsugamushi: molecular cloning and sequence analysis of the sta56 gene and precise identification of a strain-specific epitope. Infect Immun 58: 20762084. [Google Scholar]
  25. Manosroi J, Chutipongvivate S, Auwanit W, Manosroi A, , 2006. Determination and geographic distribution of Orientia tsutsugamushi serotypes in Thailand by nested polymerase chain reaction. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis 55: 185190.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  26. Guo HB, Wu GH, Tang JQ, Li XF, Yu MM, Zhang Y, Pan XZ, Li YX, , 1995. Finding out Kawasaki serotype Rickettsia tsutsugamushi by nested polymerase chain reaction in China. Chin J Zoon 11: 2224. [Google Scholar]
  27. Yang LP, Zhao ZT, Liu YX, Feng YQ, Wang XJ, Li Z, , 2006. Genotype identification and sequence analysis of Orientia tsutsugamushi isolated from Shandong area. Chin J Epidemiol 27: 10611064. [Google Scholar]
  28. Yang ZQ, Liu YX, Yu XM, Wu QY, Xing RY, , 2000. Investigation on natural foci of autumn-winter type tustsugamushi disease in Shandong province. Chin J Epidemiol 21: 283286. [Google Scholar]
  29. Guo HB, Wu GH, Xu MH, Liu Y, Yu MM, Shen JZ, Bao MR, , 1994. Studies on natural foci of Tsutsugamushi disease of the Autumn–Winter type in Jiangsu. Chin J Epidemiol 15: 2730. [Google Scholar]
  30. Dou XF, Li YH, Li X, Lv YN, Li XY, Guan ZZ, Zhang XC, Wang XM, He ZY, Sun YL, Lin H, Tian LL, Liu Y, Wang QY, , 2012. Monitoring results of plague in small mammals in Beijing. Chin J Ctrl Endem Dis 27: 101103. [Google Scholar]

Data & Media loading...

  • Received : 04 Dec 2012
  • Accepted : 27 Apr 2013
  • Published online : 10 Jul 2013

Most Cited This Month

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error