1921
Volume 89, Issue 2
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645

Abstract

Abstract.

We conducted active surveillance for kala-azar and post–kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL) in a population of 24,814 individuals. Between 2002 and 2010, 1,002 kala-azar and 185 PKDL cases occurred. Median PKDL patient age was 12 years; 9% had no antecedent kala-azar. Cases per 10,000 person-years peaked at 90 for kala-azar (2005) and 28 for PKDL (2007). Cumulative PKDL incidence among kala-azar patients was 17% by 5 years. Kala-azar patients younger than 15 years were more likely than older patients to develop PKDL; no other risk factors were identified. The most common lesions were hypopigmented macules. Of 98 untreated PKDL patients, 48 (49%) patients had resolution, with median time of 19 months. Kala-azar patients showed elevated interferon-γ (IFNγ), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα), and interleukin 10 (IL-10). Matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP9) and MMP9/tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP1) ratio were significantly higher in PKDL patients than in other groups. PKDL is frequent in Bangladesh and poses a challenge to the current visceral leishmaniasis elimination initiative in the Indian subcontinent.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.12-0711
2013-08-07
2017-09-22
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/14761645/89/2/345.html?itemId=/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.12-0711&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Zijlstra EE, Musa AM, Khalil EA, el-Hassan IM, el-Hassan AM, , 2003. Post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis. Lancet Infect Dis 3: 8798.[Crossref]
  2. Zijlstra EE, el-Hassan AM, , 2001. Leishmaniasis in Sudan. Post kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 95 (Suppl 1): S59S76.[Crossref]
  3. Zijlstra EE, el-Hassan AM, Ismael A, , 1995. Endemic kala-azar in eastern Sudan: post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis. Am J Trop Med Hyg 52: 299305.
  4. Ramesh V, , 1995. Post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis. Int J Dermatol 34: 8591.[Crossref]
  5. Salotra P, Singh R, , 2006. Challenges in the diagnosis of post kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis. Indian J Med Res 123: 295310.
  6. Rahman K, Islam S, Rahman M, Kenah E, Galive C, Zahid M, Maguire J, Rahman M, Haque R, Luby S, Bern C, , 2010. Rising incidence of post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis in a population-based study in Bangladesh. Clin Infect Dis 50: 7376.[Crossref]
  7. Ramesh V, , 1994. On the differences between post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis and leprosy. Trop Doct 24: 120121.[Crossref]
  8. Wolff K, Johnson R, Suurmond R, , 2005. Fitzpatrick's Color Atlas & Synopsis of Clinical Dermatology. New York: McGraw-Hill Professional.
  9. Cruz I, Canavate C, Rubio JM, Morales MA, Chicharro C, Laguna F, Jimenez-Mejias M, Sirera G, Videla S, Alvar J, , 2002. A nested polymerase chain reaction (Ln-PCR) for diagnosing and monitoring Leishmania infantum infection in patients co-infected with human immunodeficiency virus. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 96 (Suppl 1): S185S189.[Crossref]
  10. Aalen O, , 1978. Nonparametric inference for a family of counting processes. Ann Stat 6: 701726.[Crossref]
  11. Wegman EJ, Wright IW, , 1983. Splines in statistics. J Am Stat Assoc 78: 351365.[Crossref]
  12. Kaplan EL, Meier P, , 1958. Nonparametric estimation from incomplete observations. J Am Stat Assoc 53: 457481.[Crossref]
  13. Peto R, Peto J, , 1972. Asymptotically efficient rank invariance test procedures (with discussion). J R Stat Soc Ser A Stat Soc 135: 185206.[Crossref]
  14. Rahman M, Ahmed BN, Faiz MA, Chowdhury MZ, Islam QT, Sayeedur R, Rahman MR, Hossain M, Bangali AM, Ahmad Z, Islam MN, Mascie-Taylor CG, Berman J, Arana B, , 2011. Phase IV trial of miltefosine in adults and children for treatment of visceral leishmaniasis (kala-azar) in Bangladesh. Am J Trop Med Hyg 85: 6669.[Crossref]
  15. Desjeux P, Ramesh V, Jha TK, Noiri E, , 2011. Post-kala-azar-dermal leishmaniasis: facing the challenge of eliminating kala-azar from South Asia. , eds. Kala Azar in South Asia: Current Status and Challenges Ahead. Heidelberg, Germany: Springer, 111124.[Crossref]
  16. Mondal D, Nasrin KN, Huda MM, Kabir M, Hossain MS, Kroeger A, Thomas T, Haque R, , 2010. Enhanced case detection and improved diagnosis of PKDL in a kala-azar-endemic area of Bangladesh. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 4: e832.[Crossref]
  17. Uranw S, Ostyn B, Rijal A, Devkota S, Khanal B, Menten J, Boelaert M, Rijal S, , 2011. Post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis in Nepal: a retrospective cohort study (2000–2010). PLoS Negl Trop Dis 5: e1433.[Crossref]
  18. Zijlstra EE, el-Hassan AM, Ismael A, Ghalib HW, , 1994. Endemic kala-azar in eastern Sudan: a longitudinal study on the incidence of clinical and subclinical infection and post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis. Am J Trop Med Hyg 51: 826836.
  19. Saha S, Mondal S, Ravindran R, Bhowmick S, Modak D, Mallick S, Rahman M, Kar S, Goswami R, Guha SK, Pramanik N, Saha B, Ali N, , 2007. IL-10- and TGF-beta-mediated susceptibility in kala-azar and post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis: the significance of amphotericin B in the control of Leishmania donovani infection in India. J Immunol 179: 55925603.[Crossref]
  20. Kumar D, Ramesh V, Verma S, Ramam M, Salotra P, , 2009. Post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL) developing after treatment of visceral leishmaniasis with amphotericin B and miltefosine. Ann Trop Med Parasitol 103: 727730.[Crossref]
  21. Pandey K, Das VN, Singh D, Das S, Lal CS, Verma N, Bimal S, Topno RK, Siddiqui NA, Verma RB, Sinha PK, Das P, , 2012. Post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis in a patient treated with injectable paromomycin for visceral leishmaniasis in India. J Clin Microbiol 50: 14781479.[Crossref]
  22. Napier LE, Krishnan KV, , 1931. A theory of the aetiology and epidemiology of kala-azar in India. Ind Med Gaz 66: 603609.
  23. Rijal S, Chappuis F, Singh R, Bovier PA, Acharya P, Karki BM, Das ML, Desjeux P, Loutan L, Koirala S, , 2003. Treatment of visceral leishmaniasis in south-eastern Nepal: decreasing efficacy of sodium stibogluconate and need for a policy to limit further decline. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 97: 350354.[Crossref]
  24. Sundar S, More DK, Singh MK, Singh VP, Sharma S, Makharia A, Kumar PC, Murray HW, , 2000. Failure of pentavalent antimony in visceral leishmaniasis in India: report from the center of the Indian epidemic. Clin Infect Dis 31: 11041107.[Crossref]
  25. Dorlo TP, Eggelte TA, de Vries PJ, Beijnen JH, , 2012. Characterization and identification of suspected counterfeit miltefosine capsules. Analyst (Lond) 137: 12651274.[Crossref]
  26. Ansari NA, Ramesh V, Salotra P, , 2006. Interferon (IFN)-gamma, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-6, and IFN-gamma receptor 1 are the major immunological determinants associated with post-kala azar dermal leishmaniasis. J Infect Dis 194: 958965.[Crossref]
  27. Cillari E, Vitale G, Arcoleo F, D'Agostino P, Mocciaro C, Gambino G, Malta R, Stassi G, Giordano C, Milano S, Mansueto S, , 1995. In vivo and in vitro cytokine profiles and mononuclear cell subsets in Sicilian patients with active visceral leishmaniasis. Cytokine 7: 740745.[Crossref]
  28. Karp CL, el-Safi SH, Wynn TA, Satti MM, Kordofani AM, Hashim FA, Hag-Ali M, Neva FA, Nutman TB, Sacks DL, , 1993. In vivo cytokine profiles in patients with kala-azar. Marked elevation of both interleukin-10 and interferon-gamma. J Clin Invest 91: 16441648.[Crossref]
  29. Ismail A, El Hassan AM, Kemp K, Gasim S, Kadaru AE, Moller T, Kharazmi A, Theander TG, , 1999. Immunopathology of post kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL): T-cell phenotypes and cytokine profile. J Pathol 189: 615622.[Crossref]
  30. Okamoto T, Akuta T, Tamura F, van Der Vliet A, Akaike T, , 2004. Molecular mechanism for activation and regulation of matrix metalloproteinases during bacterial infections and respiratory inflammation. Biol Chem 385: 9971006.[Crossref]
  31. Teles RM, Teles RB, Amadeu TP, Moura DF, Mendonca-Lima L, Ferreira H, Santos IM, Nery JA, Sarno EN, Sampaio EP, , 2010. High matrix metalloproteinase production correlates with immune activation and leukocyte migration in leprosy reactional lesions. Infect Immun 78: 10121021.[Crossref]
  32. Quinnell RJ, Courtenay O, , 2009. Transmission, reservoir hosts and control of zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis. Parasitology 136: 19151934.[Crossref]
  33. Napier L, Smith R, Das-Gupta C, Mukerji S, , 1933. The infection of Phlebotomus argentipes from dermal leishmanial lesions. Indian J Med Res 21: 173177.
  34. Shortt H, Swaminath CS, , 1928. Note on dermal leishmanoid. Indian J Med Res 16: 239240.
  35. Addy M, Nandy A, , 1992. Ten years of kala-azar in west Bengal, Part I. Did post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis initiate the outbreak in 24-Parganas? Bull World Health Organ 70: 341346.
  36. Bern C, Hightower AW, Chowdhury R, Ali M, Amann J, Wagatsuma Y, Haque R, Kurkjian K, Vaz LE, Begum M, Akter T, Cetre-Sossah CB, Ahluwalia IB, Dotson E, Secor WE, Breiman RF, Maguire JH, , 2005. Risk factors for kala-azar in Bangladesh. Emerg Infect Dis 11: 655662.[Crossref]
  37. Malaviya P, Picado A, Singh SP, Hasker E, Singh RP, Boelaert M, Sundar S, , 2011. Visceral leishmaniasis in Muzaffarpur district, Bihar, India from 1990 to 2008. PLoS One 6: e14751.[Crossref]
  38. Dye C, Wolpert DM, , 1988. Earthquakes, influenza and cycles of Indian kala-azar. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 82: 843850.[Crossref]
  39. Jeronimo SM, Teixeira MJ, Sousa A, Thielking P, Pearson RD, Evans TG, , 2000. Natural history of Leishmania (Leishmania) chagasi infection in northeastern Brazil: long-term follow-up. Clin Infect Dis 30: 608609.[Crossref]
  40. Sen Gupta PC, , 1975. Return of kala-azar. J Indian Med Assoc 65: 8990.
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.12-0711
Loading
/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.12-0711
Loading

Data & Media loading...

  • Received : 27 Nov 2012
  • Accepted : 20 May 2013

Most Cited This Month

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error