1921
Volume 88, Issue 3
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645

Abstract

Abstract.

We evaluated a commercial point-of-care circulating cathodic antigen (POC-CCA) test for assessing infection prevalence in areas at risk. Overall, 4,405 school-age children in Cameroon, Côte d'Ivoire, Ethiopia, Kenya, and Uganda provided urine for POC-CCA testing and stool for Kato-Katz assays. By latent class analysis, one POC-CCA test was more sensitive (86% versus 62%) but less specific (72% versus ∼100%) than multiple Kato-Katz smears from one stool. However, only 1% of POC-CCA tests in a non-endemic area were false positives, suggesting the latent class analysis underestimated the POC-CCA specificity. Multivariable modeling estimated POC-CCA as significantly more sensitive than Kato-Katz at low infection intensities (< 100 eggs/gram stool). By linear regression, 72% prevalence among 9–12 year olds by POC-CCA corresponded to 50% prevalence by Kato-Katz, whereas 46% POC-CCA prevalence corresponded to 10% Kato-Katz prevalence. We conclude that one urine POC-CCA test can replace Kato-Katz testing for community-level prevalence mapping.

[open-access] This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene's Re-use License which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.12-0639
2013-03-06
2017-11-19
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/14761645/88/3/426.html?itemId=/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.12-0639&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Katz N, Chaves A, Pellegrino J, , 1972. A simple device for quantitative stool thick-smear technique in schistosomiasis mansoni. Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo 14: 397400.
  2. WHO, 2006. Preventive Chemotherapy in Human Helminthiasis: Coordinated Use of Anthelminthic Drugs in Control Interventions: A Manual For Health Professionals and Programme Managers. Geneva: World Health Organization.
  3. WHO, 2010. First WHO Report on Neglected Tropical Diseases 2010: Working to Overcome the Global Impact of Neglected Tropical Diseases. Geneva: World Health Organization.
  4. de Vlas SJ, Gryseels B, , 1992. Underestimation of Schistosoma mansoni prevalences. Parasitol Today 8: 274277.[Crossref]
  5. Utzinger J, Booth M, N'Goran EK, Muller I, Tanner M, Lengeler C, , 2001. Relative contribution of day-to-day and intra-specimen variation in fecal egg counts of Schistosoma mansoni before and after treatment with praziquantel. Parasitology 122: 537544.[Crossref]
  6. Deelder AM, van Dam GJ, van Lieshout L, , 2012. Response to: accuracy of circulating cathodic antigen tests for rapid mapping of Schistosoma mansoni and S. haematobium infections in southern Sudan by RA Ashton et al. (2011) Trop Med Int Health 16, pp. 1099–1103. Trop Med Int Health 17: 402403.
  7. Brooker S, Kabatereine NB, Myatt M, Russell Stothard J, Fenwick A, , 2005. Rapid assessment of Schistosoma mansoni: the validity, applicability and cost-effectiveness of the Lot Quality Assurance Sampling method in Uganda. Trop Med Int Health 10: 647658.[Crossref]
  8. Bergquist R, Johansen MV, Utzinger J, , 2009. Diagnostic dilemmas in helminthology: what tools to use and when? Trends Parasitol 25: 151156.[Crossref]
  9. Richards FO, Jr Eigege A, Miri ES, Jinadu MY, Hopkins DR, , 2006. Integration of mass drug administration programmes in Nigeria: the challenge of schistosomiasis. Bull World Health Organ 84: 673676.[Crossref]
  10. Solomon AW, Engels D, Bailey RL, Blake IM, Brooker S, Chen J-X, Chen J-H, Churcher TS, Drakeley CJ, Edwards T, Fenwick A, French M, Gabrielli AF, Grassly NC, Harding-Esch EM, Holland MJ, Koukounari A, Lammie PJ, Leslie J, Mabey DC, Rhajaoui M, Secor WE, Stothard JR, Wei H, Zhou XN, Peeling RW, , 2012. A diagnostics platform for the integrated mapping, monitoring, and surveillance of neglected tropical diseases: rationale and target product profiles. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 6: e1746.[Crossref]
  11. van Lieshout L, Polderman AM, Deelder AM, , 2000. Immunodiagnosis of schistosomiasis by determination of the circulating antigens CAA and CCA, in particular in individuals with recent or light infections. Acta Trop 77: 6980.[Crossref]
  12. Stothard JR, Kabatereine NB, Tukahebwa EM, Kazibwe F, Rollinson D, Mathieson W, Webster JP, Fenwick A, , 2006. Use of circulating cathodic antigen (CCA) dipsticks for detection of intestinal and urinary schistosomiasis. Acta Trop 97: 219228.[Crossref]
  13. van Dam GJ, Wichers JH, Ferreira TM, Ghati D, van Amerongen A, Deelder AM, , 2004. Diagnosis of schistosomiasis by reagent strip test for detection of circulating cathodic antigen. J Clin Microbiol 42: 54585461.[Crossref]
  14. Legesse M, Erko B, , 2007. Field-based evaluation of a reagent strip test for diagnosis of Schistosoma mansoni by detecting circulating cathodic antigen in urine before and after chemotherapy. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 101: 668673.[Crossref]
  15. Coulibaly JT, Knopp S, N'Guessan NA, Silué KD, Fürst T, Lohourignon LK, Brou JK, N'Gbesso YK, Vounatsou P, N'Goran EK, Utzinger J, , 2011. Accuracy of urine circulating cathodic antigen (CCA) test for Schistosoma mansoni diagnosis in different settings of Côte d'Ivoire. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 5: e1384.[Crossref]
  16. Shane HL, Verani JR, Abudho B, Montgomery SP, Blackstock AJ, Mwinzi PN, Butler SE, Karanja DM, Secor WE, , 2011. Evaluation of urine CCA assays for detection of Schistosoma mansoni infection in western Kenya. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 5: e591.[Crossref]
  17. Tchuem Tchuenté L-A, Kuete Fouodo CJ, Kamwa Ngassam RI, Sumo L, Dongmo Noumedem C, Kenfack CM, Gipwe NF, Nana ED, Stothard JR, Rollinson D, , 2012. Evaluation of circulating cathodic antigen (CCA) urine-tests for diagnosis of Schistosoma mansoni infection in Cameroon. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 6: e1758.[Crossref]
  18. Obeng BB, Aryeetey YA, de Dood CJ, Amoah AS, Larbi IA, Deelder AM, Yazdanbakhsh M, Hartgers FC, Boakye DA, Verweij JJ, van Dam GJ, van Lieshout L, , 2008. Application of a circulating-cathodic-antigen (CCA) strip test and real-time PCR, in comparison with microscopy, for the detection of Schistosoma haematobium in urine samples from Ghana. Ann Trop Med Parasitol 102: 625633.[Crossref]
  19. de Vlas SJ, Engels D, Rabello ALT, Oostburg BFI, Van Lieshout L, Polderman AM, Van Oortmarssen GJ, Habbema JD, Gryseels B, , 1997. Validation of a chart to estimate true Schistosoma mansoni prevalences from simple egg counts. Parasitology 114: 113121.[Crossref]
  20. Rindskopf D, Rindskopf W, , 1986. The value of latent class analysis in medical diagnosis. Stat Med 5: 2127.[Crossref]
  21. Espeland MA, Handelman SL, , 1989. Using latent class models to characterize and assess relative error in discrete measurements. Biometrics 45: 587599.[Crossref]
  22. Utzinger J, Vounatsou P, N'Goran EK, Tanner M, Booth M, , 2002. Reduction in the prevalence and intensity of hookworm infections after praziquantel treatment for schistosomiasis infection. Int J Parasitol 32: 759765.[Crossref]
  23. Koukounari A, Webster JP, Donnelly CA, Bray BC, Naples J, Bosompem K, Shiff C, , 2009. Sensitivities and specificities of diagnostic tests and infection prevalence of Schistosoma haematobium estimated from data on adults in villages northwest of Accra, Ghana. Am J Trop Med Hyg 80: 435441.
  24. Peters PA, Warren KS, Mahmoud AA, , 1976. Rapid, accurate quantification of schistosome eggs via nuclepore filters. J Parasitol 62: 154155.[Crossref]
  25. Stothard JR, , 2009. Improving control of African schistosomiasis: towards effective use of rapid diagnostic tests within an appropriate disease surveillance model. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 103: 325332.[Crossref]
  26. Polman K, Stelma FF, Gryseels B, Van Dam GJ, Talla I, Niang M, Van Lieshout L, Deelder AM, , 1995. Epidemiologic application of circulating antigen detection in a recent Schistosoma mansoni focus in northern Senegal. Am J Trop Med Hyg 53: 152157.
  27. Kongs A, Marks G, Verlé P, Van der Stuyft P, , 2001. The unreliability of the Kato-Katz technique limits its usefulness for evaluating S. mansoni infections. Trop Med Int Health 6: 163169.[Crossref]
  28. Booth M, Vounatsou P, N'Goran EK, Tanner M, Utzinger J, , 2003. The influence of sampling effort and the performance of the Kato-Katz technique in diagnosing Schistosoma mansoni and hookworm co-infections in rural Côte d'Ivoire. Parasitology 127: 525531.[Crossref]
  29. Berhe N, Medhin G, Erko B, Smith T, Gedamu S, Bereded D, Moore R, Habte E, Redda A, Gebre-Michael T, Gundersen SG, , 2004. Variations in helminth fecal egg counts in Kato-Katz thick smears and their implications in assessing infection status with Schistosoma mansoni . Acta Trop 92: 205212.[Crossref]
  30. Enk MJ, Lima AC, Drummond SC, Schall VT, Coelho PM, , 2008. The effect of the number of stool samples on the observed prevalence and the infection intensity with Schistosoma mansoni among a population in an area of low transmission. Acta Trop 108: 222228.[Crossref]
  31. Stothard JR, Sousa-Figueiredo JC, Standley C, Van Dam GJ, Knopp S, Utzinger J, Ameri H, Khamis AN, Khamis IS, Deelder AM, Mohammed KA, Rollinson D, , 2009. An evaluation of urine-CCA strip test and fingerprick blood SEA-ELISA for detection of urinary schistosomiasis in schoolchildren in Zanzibar. Acta Trop 111: 6470.[Crossref]
  32. WHO, 2002. Prevention and Control of Schistosomiasis and Soil Transmitted Helminthiasis: Report of a WHO Expert Committee. WHO Technical Report Series 912. Geneva: World Health Organization.
  33. Speich B, Knopp S, Mohammed KA, Khamis IS, Rinaldi L, Cringoli G, Rollinson D, Utzinger J, , 2010. Comparative cost assessment of the Kato-Katz and FLOTAC techniques for soil-transmitted helminth diagnosis in epidemiological surveys. Parasites & Vectors 3: 71.[Crossref]
  34. Rollinson D, Knopp S, Levitz S, Stothard JR, Tchuem Tchuenté L-A, Garba A, Mohammed KA, Schur N, Person B, Colley DG, Utzinger J, , 2012. Time to set the agenda for schistosomiasis elimination. Acta Trop 44: 221225.
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.12-0639
Loading
/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.12-0639
Loading

Data & Media loading...

  • Received : 15 Oct 2012
  • Accepted : 03 Dec 2012

Most Cited This Month

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error