1921
Volume 91, Issue 1
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645

Abstract

Abstract.

Severe malaria caused by is no longer considered rare. To describe its clinical features, we performed a retrospective case control study in the subregion of Luciano Castillo Colonna, Piura, Peru, an area with nearly exclusive vivax malaria transmission. Severe cases and the subset of critically ill cases were compared with a random set of uncomplicated malaria cases (1:4). Between 2008 and 2009, 6,502 malaria cases were reported, including 106 hospitalized cases, 81 of which fit the World Health Organization definition for severe malaria. Of these 81 individuals, 28 individuals were critically ill (0.4%, 95% confidence interval = 0.2–0.6%) with severe anemia (57%), shock (25%), lung injury (21%), acute renal failure (14%), or cerebral malaria (11%). Two potentially malaria-related deaths occurred. Compared with uncomplicated cases, individuals critically ill were older (38 versus 26 years old, < 0.001), but similar in other regards. Severe vivax malaria monoinfection with critical illness is more common than previously thought.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.12-0610
2014-07-02
2017-09-22
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/14761645/91/1/11.html?itemId=/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.12-0610&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Murray CJ, Rosenfeld LC, Lim SS, Andrews KG, Foreman KJ, Haring D, Fullman N, Naghavi M, Lozano R, Lopez AD, , 2012. Global malaria mortality between 1980 and 2010: a systematic analysis. Lancet 379: 413431.[Crossref]
  2. malERA Consultative Group on Vaccines, 2011. A research agenda for malaria eradication: vaccines. PLoS Med 8: e10000398.
  3. World Health Organization, 2011. World Malaria Report. Available at: http://www.who.int/malaria/world_malaria_report_2011/en. Accessed January 20, 2014.
  4. Price RN, Douglas NM, Anstey NM, , 2009. New developments in Plasmodium vivax malaria: severe disease and the rise of chloroquine resistance. Curr Opin Infect Dis 22: 430435.[Crossref]
  5. Arevalo-Herrera M, Quinones ML, Guerra C, Cespedes N, Giron S, Ahumada M, Pineros JG, Padilla N, Terrientes Z, Rosas A, Padilla JC, Escalante AA, Beier JC, Herrera S, , 2012. Malaria in selected non-Amazonian countries of Latin America. Acta Trop 121: 303314.[Crossref]
  6. Baird JK, , 2009. Severe and fatal vivax malaria challenges ‘benign tertian malaria’ dogma. Ann Trop Paediatr 29: 251252.[Crossref]
  7. Andrade BB, Reis-Filho A, Souza-Neto SM, Clarencio J, Camargo LM, Barral A, Barral-Netto M, , 2010. Severe Plasmodium vivax malaria exhibits marked inflammatory imbalance. Malar J 9: 13.[Crossref]
  8. Kochar DK, Saxena V, Singh N, Kochar SK, Kumar SV, Das A, , 2005. Plasmodium vivax malaria. Emerg Infect Dis 11: 132134.[Crossref]
  9. Poespoprodjo JR, Fobia W, Kenangalem E, Lampah DA, Hasanuddin A, Warikar N, Sugiarto P, Tjitra E, Anstey NM, Price RN, , 2009. Vivax malaria: a major cause of morbidity in early infancy. Clin Infect Dis 48: 17041712.[Crossref]
  10. Thapa R, Patra V, Kundu R, , 2007. Plasmodium vivax cerebral malaria. Indian Pediatr 44: 433434.
  11. Bammigatti C, Shetty S, Shetty S, Kumar A, , 2011. Benign tertian malaria–a misnomer? Trop Doct 41: 168169.[Crossref]
  12. Genton B, D'Acremont V, Rare L, Baea K, Reeder JC, Alpers MP, Muller I, , 2008. Plasmodium vivax and mixed infections are associated with severe malaria in children: a prospective cohort study from Papua New Guinea. PLoS Med 5: e127.[Crossref]
  13. Alexandre MA, Ferreira CO, Siqueira AM, Magalhaes BL, Mourao MP, Lacerda MV, Alecrim M, , 2010. Severe Plasmodium vivax malaria, Brazilian Amazon. Emerg Infect Dis 16: 16111614.[Crossref]
  14. Kochar DK, Das A, Kochar SK, Saxena V, Sirohi P, Garg S, Kochar A, Khatri MP, Gupta V, , 2009. Severe Plasmodium vivax malaria: a report on serial cases from Bikaner in northwestern India. Am J Trop Med Hyg 80: 194198.
  15. Bassat Q, Alonso PL, , 2011. Defying malaria: fathoming severe Plasmodium vivax disease. Nat Med 17: 4849.[Crossref]
  16. Marquino W, MacArthur JR, Barat LM, Oblitas FE, Arrunategui M, Garavito G, Chafloque ML, Pardave B, Gutierrez S, Arrospide N, Carrillo C, Cabezas C, Ruebush TK, 2nd, 2003. Efficacy of chloroquine, sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine, and mefloquine for the treatment of uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria on the north coast of Peru. Am J Trop Med Hyg 68: 120123.
  17. General Directorate of Epidemiology, 2011. Epidemiological Bulletin—Epidemiological Week 52: Peruvian Ministry of Health. Available at: http://www.dge.gob.pe/boletines/2011/51.pdf. Accessed January 20, 2014.
  18. General Directorate of Epidemiology, 2005. Epidemiological Bulletin—Epidemiological Week 52. Lima: Peruvian Ministry of Health. Available at: http://www.dge.gob.pe/boletines/2005/download.php?file=52.pdf. Accessed January 20, 2014.
  19. General Directorate of Epidemiology, 2010. Situation Room—Epidemiological Week 52: Peruvian Ministry of Health. Available at: http://www.dge.gob.pe/salasit.php. Accessed January 20, 2014.
  20. World Health Organization, 2000. Severe falciparum malaria. World Health Organization, Communicable Diseases Cluster. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 94 (Suppl 1): S1S90.
  21. Peruvian Ministry of Health, 2009. Public Health Technical Guidelines for the Management of Malaria and Severe Malaria in Peru. Lima, Peru: Peruvian Ministry of Health.
  22. Peruvian Ministry of Health, 2005. Technical Norm for the Curative Treatment of Malaria—Therapeutic Schemes for the Management of Uncomplicated and Severe Malaria in Peru. Lima, Peru: Peruvian Ministry of Health.
  23. National Institute of Statistics and Informatics, 2010. National Survey of Demography and Familiy Health 2009. Available at: http://encuestas.inei.gob.pe/endes/. Accessed January 20, 2014.
  24. Aggarwal A, Rath S, Shashiraj, 2005. Plasmodium vivax malaria presenting with severe thrombocytopenia. J Trop Pediatr 51: 120121.[Crossref]
  25. Andrade BB, Reis-Filho A, Souza-Neto SM, Raffaele-Netto I, Camargo LM, Barral A, Barral-Netto M, , 2010. Plasma superoxide dismutase-1 as a surrogate marker of vivax malaria severity. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 4: e650.[Crossref]
  26. Bhatia V, Bhatia J, , 2010. Severe thrombocytopenia with bleeding manifestations in two children secondary to Plasmodium vivax . Platelets 21: 307309.[Crossref]
  27. Harish R, Gupta S, , 2009. Plasmodium vivax malaria presenting with severe thrombocytopenia, cerebral complications and hydrocephalus. Indian J Pediatr 76: 551552.[Crossref]
  28. Kaur D, Wasir V, Gulati S, Bagga A, , 2007. Unusual presentation of Plasmodium vivax malaria with severe thrombocytopenia and acute renal failure. J Trop Pediatr 53: 210212.[Crossref]
  29. Kumar S, Melzer M, Dodds P, Watson J, Ord R, , 2007. P. vivax malaria complicated by shock and ARDS. Scand J Infect Dis 39: 255256.[Crossref]
  30. Makkar RP, Mukhopadhyay S, Monga A, Monga A, Gupta AK, , 2002. Plasmodium vivax malaria presenting with severe thrombocytopenia. Braz J Infect Dis 6: 263265.[Crossref]
  31. Sarkar S, Bhattacharya P, , 2008. Cerebral malaria caused by Plasmodium vivax in adult subjects. Indian J Crit Care Med 12: 204205.[Crossref]
  32. Siqueira AM, Alexandre MA, Mourao MP, Santos VS, Nagahashi-Marie SK, Alecrim MG, Lacerda MV, , 2010. Severe rhabdomyolysis caused by Plasmodium vivax malaria in the Brazilian Amazon. Am J Trop Med Hyg 83: 271273.[Crossref]
  33. Thapa R, Biswas B, Mallick D, Sardar S, Modak S, , 2009. Childhood Plasmodium vivax malaria with severe thrombocytopenia and bleeding manifestations. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol 31: 758759.[Crossref]
  34. Nurleila S, Syafruddin D, Elyazar IR, Baird JK, , 2012. Serious and fatal illness associated with falciparum and vivax malaria among patients admitted to hospital at West Sumba in eastern Indonesia. Am J Trop Med Hyg 87: 4149.[Crossref]
  35. Barcus MJ, Basri H, Picarima H, Manyakori C, Sekartuti Elyazar I, Bangs MJ, Maguire JD, Baird JK, , 2007. Demographic risk factors for severe and fatal vivax and falciparum malaria among hospital admissions in northeastern Indonesian Papua. Am J Trop Med Hyg 77: 984991.
  36. Tjitra E, Anstey NM, Sugiarto P, Warikar N, Kenangalem E, Karyana M, Lampah DA, Price RN, , 2008. Multidrug-resistant Plasmodium vivax associated with severe and fatal malaria: a prospective study in Papua, Indonesia. PLoS Med 5: e128.[Crossref]
  37. Rodriguez-Morales AJ, Sanchez E, Vargas M, Piccolo C, Colina R, Arria M, , 2006. Anemia and thrombocytopenia in children with Plasmodium vivax malaria. J Trop Pediatr 52: 4951.[Crossref]
  38. Rodriguez-Morales AJ, Sanchez E, Vargas M, Piccolo C, Colina R, Arria M, Franco-Paredes C, , 2006. Is anemia in Plasmodium vivax malaria more frequent and severe than in Plasmodium falciparum? Am J Med 119: e9e10.[Crossref]
  39. Douglas NM, Anstey NM, Buffet PA, Poespoprodjo JR, Yeo TW, White NJ, Price RN, , 2012. The anaemia of Plasmodium vivax malaria. Malar J 11: 135.[Crossref]
  40. Lacerda MV, Fragoso SC, Alecrim MG, Alexandre MA, Magalhaes BM, Siqueira AM, Ferreira LC, Araujo JR, Mourao MP, Ferrer M, Castillo P, Martin-Jaular L, Fernandez-Becerra C, del Portillo H, Ordi J, Alonso PL, Bassat Q, , 2012. Postmortem characterization of patients with clinical diagnosis of Plasmodium vivax malaria: to what extent does this parasite kill? Clin Infect Dis 55: e67e74.[Crossref]
  41. Anstey NM, Russell B, Yeo TW, Price RN, , 2009. The pathophysiology of vivax malaria. Trends Parasitol 25: 220227.[Crossref]
  42. Desai M, ter Kuile FO, Nosten F, McGready R, Asamoa K, Brabin B, Newman RD, , 2007. Epidemiology and burden of malaria in pregnancy. Lancet Infect Dis 7: 93104.[Crossref]
  43. Rodriguez-Morales AJ, Sanchez E, Vargas M, Piccolo C, Colina R, Arria M, Franco-Paredes C, , 2006. Pregnancy outcomes associated with Plasmodium vivax malaria in northeastern Venezuela. Am J Trop Med Hyg 74: 755757.
  44. Ruebush TK, 2nd Zegarra J, Cairo J, Andersen EM, Green M, Pillai DR, Marquino W, Huilca M, Arevalo E, Garcia C, Solary L, Kain KC, , 2003. Chloroquine-resistant Plasmodium vivax malaria in Peru. Am J Trop Med Hyg 69: 548552.
  45. Graf PC, Durand S, Alvarez Antonio C, Montalvan C, Galves Montoya M, Green MD, Santolalla ML, Salas C, Lucas C, Bacon DJ, Fryauff DJ, , 2012. Failure of supervised chloroquine and primaquine regimen for the treatment of Plasmodium vivax in the Peruvian Amazon. Malar Res Treat 2012: 936067.
  46. Lanca EF, Magalhaes BM, Vitor-Silva S, Siqueira AM, Benzecry SG, Alexandre MA, O'Brien C, Bassat Q, Lacerda MV, , 2012. Risk factors and characterization of Plasmodium vivax-associated admissions to pediatric intensive care units in the Brazilian Amazon. PLoS ONE 7: e35406.[Crossref]
  47. Lacerda MV, Mourao MP, Coelho HC, Santos JB, , 2011. Thrombocytopenia in malaria: who cares? Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz 106 (Suppl 1): 5263.[Crossref]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.12-0610
Loading
/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.12-0610
Loading

Data & Media loading...

  • Received : 01 Oct 2012
  • Accepted : 19 Feb 2014

Most Cited This Month

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error