Volume 89, Issue 3
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645



Neopterin is closely associated with activation of the cellular immune system. Neopterin levels differed between controls and patients with Buruli ulcer disease. No differences between patients with or without paradoxical responses were observed. Therefore, neopterin has no value in detecting paradoxical responses among patients with limited Buruli ulcer disease. Neopterin levels were lower in patients receiving clarithromycin. This finding might indicate a slower cellular immune recovery, with possible consequences in future therapy with clarithromycin.


Article metrics loading...

The graphs shown below represent data from March 2017
Loading full text...

Full text loading...



  1. Etuaful S, Carbonnelle B, Grosset J, Lucas S, Horsfield C, Phillips R, Evans M, Ofori-Adjei D, Klustse E, Owusu-Boateng J, Amedofu GK, Awuah P, Ampadu E, Amofah G, Asiedu K, Wansbrough-Jones M, , 2005. Efficacy of the combination rifampin-streptomycin in preventing growth of Mycobacterium ulcerans in early lesions of buruli ulcer in humans. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 49: 31823186.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  2. World Health Organization, 2004. Provisional Guidance on the Role of Specific Antibiotics in the Management of Mycobacterium ulcerans (Buruli Ulcer). Geneva: World Health Organization. [Google Scholar]
  3. Nienhuis WA, Stienstra Y, Abass KM, Tuah W, Thompson WA, Awuah PC, Awuah-Boateng NY, Adjei O, Bretzel G, Schouten JP, van der Werf TS, , 2012. Paradoxical responses after start of antimicrobial treatment in Mycobacterium ulcerans infection. Clin Infect Dis 54: 519526.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  4. van Altena R, Duggirala S, Groschel MI, van der Werf TS, , 2011. Immunology in tuberculosis: challenges in monitoring of disease activity and identifying correlates of protection. Curr Pharm Des 17: 28532862.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  5. Nienhuis WA, Stienstra Y, Thompson WA, Awuah PC, Abass KM, Tuah W, Awua-Boateng NY, Ampadu EO, Siegmund V, Schouten JP, Adjei O, Bretzel G, van der Werf TS, , 2010. Antimicrobial treatment for early, limited Mycobacterium ulcerans infection: a randomised controlled trial. Lancet 375: 664672.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  6. Sarfo FS, Phillips RO, Ampadu E, Sarpong F, Adentwe E, Wansbrough-Jones M, , 2009. Dynamics of the cytokine response to Mycobacterium ulcerans during antibiotic treatment for M. ulcerans disease (Buruli ulcer) in humans. Clin Vaccine Immunol 16: 6165.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  7. Torrado E, Fraga AG, Logarinho E, Martins GE, Carmona JA, Gama JB, Carvalho MA, Proença F, Castro AG, Pedrosa J, , 2010. IFN-gamma-dependent activation of macrophages during experimental infections by Mycobacterium ulcerans is impaired by the toxin mycolactone. J Immunol 184: 947955.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  8. Altenburg J, de Graaff CS, van der Werf TS, Boersma WG, , 2011. Immunomodulatory effects of macrolide antibiotics - part 1: biological mechanisms. Respiration 81: 6774.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  9. Hamerlinck FF, Klatser PR, Walsh DS, Bos JD, Walsh GP, Faber WR, , 1999. Serum neopterin as a marker for reactional states in leprosy. FEMS Immunol Med Microbiol 24: 405409.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  10. Silva EA, Iyer A, Ura S, Lauris JR, Naafs B, Das PK, Vilani-Moreno F, , 2007. Utility of measuring serum levels of anti-PGL-I antibody, neopterin and C-reactive protein in monitoring leprosy patients during multi-drug treatment and reactions. Trop Med Int Health 12: 14501458.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  11. te Witt R, van Wolfswinkel ME, Petit PL, van Hellemond JJ, Koelewijn R, van Belkum A, van Genderen PJ, , 2010. Neopterin and procalcitonin are suitable biomarkers for exclusion of severe Plasmodium falciparum disease at the initial clinical assessment of travellers with imported malaria. Malar J 9: 255.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  12. Prat C, Domínguez J, Andreo F, Blanco S, Pallarés A, Cuchillo F, Ruiz-Manzano J, Ausina V, , 2006. Procalcitonin and neopterin correlation with aetiology and severity of pneumonia. J Infect 52: 169177.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  13. Schipper HS, Rutgers B, Huitema MG, Etuaful SN, Westenbrink BD, Limburg PC, Timens W, van der Werf TS, , 2007. Systemic and local interferon-gamma production following Mycobacterium ulcerans infection. Clin Exp Immunol 150: 451459.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]

Data & Media loading...

  • Received : 25 Sep 2012
  • Accepted : 13 May 2013
  • Published online : 04 Sep 2013

Most Cited This Month

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error