Volume 88, Issue 3
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645



American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) transmission patterns have been increasingly associated with domestic and peridomestic environments. Here, we present results from an epidemiological survey of 94 people from 24 households in Trinidad de Las Minas, western Panama. We studied the role of sand fly abundance, housing quality, peridomicile landscape matrix, and vegetation structure on shaping household clinical ACL rate patterns at Trinidad de Las Minas. We found that sand fly abundance was significantly associated with household clinical ACL rates, with a 6% rate increase for each additional sand fly found inside a domicile.


Article metrics loading...

Loading full text...

Full text loading...



  1. Alvar J, Vélez ID, Bern C, Herrero M, Desjeux P, Cano J, Jannin J, den Boer M, WHO Leishmaniasis Control Team; , 2012. Leishmaniasis worldwide and global estimates of its incidence. PLoS ONE 7: e35671.[Crossref]
  2. Miranda A, Carrasco R, Paz H, Pascale JM, Samudio F, Saldaña A, Santamaría G, Mendoza Y, Calzada JE, , 2009. Molecular epidemiology of American tegumentary leishmaniasis in Panama. Am J Trop Med Hyg 81: 565571.[Crossref]
  3. Chaves LF, Cohen JM, Pascual M, Wilson ML, , 2008. Social exclusion modifies climate and deforestation impacts on a vector-borne disease. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2: e176.[Crossref]
  4. Alexander B, Maroli M, , 2003. Control of phlebotomine sandflies. Med Vet Entomol 17: 118.[Crossref]
  5. Christensen HA, Fairchild GB, Herrer A, Johnson CM, Young DG, Vasquez AM, , 1983. The ecology of cutaneous leishmaniasis in the republic of Panama. J Med Entomol 20: 463484.[Crossref]
  6. Pugedo H, Barata RA, França-Silva JC, Silva JC, Dias ES, , 2005. HP: an improved model of suction light trap for the capture of small insects. Rev Soc Bras Med Trop 38: 7072.[Crossref]
  7. Krebs CJ, , 1998. Ecological Methodology. Menlo Park, CA: Benjamin Cummings.
  8. Venables WN, Ripley BD, , 2002. Modern Applied Statistics. Fourth edition. New York: Springer.
  9. Davies CR, Llanos-Cuentas EA, Pyke SD, Dye C, , 1995. Cutaneous leishmaniasis in the Peruvian Andes: an epidemiological study of infection and immunity. Epidemiol Infect 114: 297318.[Crossref]
  10. Feliciangeli MD, Rabinovich J, , 1998. Abundance of Lutzomyia ovallesi but not Lu. gomezi (Diptera: Psychodidae) correlated with cutaneous leishmaniasis incidence in north-central Venezuela. Med Vet Entomol 12: 121131.[Crossref]
  11. Valderrama A, Tavares MG, Andrade Filho JD, , 2011. Anthropogenic influence on the distribution, abundance and diversity of sandfly species (Diptera: Phlebotominae: Psychodidae), vectors of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Panama. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz 106: 10241031.[Crossref]

Data & Media loading...

Supplementary Data

Supplementary PDF

  • Received : 16 Sep 2012
  • Accepted : 09 Dec 2012

Most Cited This Month

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error