1921
Volume 88, Issue 5
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645

Abstract

Abstract.

In June of 2007, West Nile virus (WNV) was detected in sentinel chickens and blood donors in Puerto Rico, where dengue virus (DENV) is hyperendemic. Enhanced human surveillance for acute febrile illness (AFI) began in eastern Puerto Rico on July 1, 2007. Healthcare providers submitted specimens from AFI cases for WNV and DENV virology and serology testing. Over 6 months, 385 specimens were received from 282 cases; 115 (41%) specimens were DENV laboratory-positive, 86 (31%) specimens were laboratory-indeterminate, and 32 (11%) specimens were laboratory-negative for WNV and DENV. One WNV infection was detected by anti-WNV immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibody and confirmed by a plaque reduction neutralization test. DENV and WNV infections could not be differentiated in 27 cases (10%). During a period of active WNV transmission, enhanced human surveillance identified one case of symptomatic WNV infection. Improved diagnostic methods are needed to allow differentiation of WNV and DENV in dengue-endemic regions.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.12-0575
2013-05-01
2017-09-23
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/14761645/88/5/997.html?itemId=/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.12-0575&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Nash D, Mostashari F, Fine A, Miller J, O'Leary D, Murray K, Huang A, Rosenberg A, Greenberg A, Sherman M, Wong S, Layton M, 1999 West Nile Outbreak Response Working Group; , 2001. The outbreak of West Nile virus infection in the New York City area in 1999. N Engl J Med 344: 18071814.[Crossref]
  2. Owen J, Moore F, Panella N, Edwards E, Bru R, Hughes M, Komar N, , 2006. Migrating birds as dispersal vehicles for West Nile virus. Ecohealth 3: 7985.[Crossref]
  3. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2008. Detection of West Nile virus in blood donations—Puerto Rico, 2007. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 57: 577580.
  4. Artsob H, Gubler DJ, Enria D, Morales M, Pupo M, Bunning M, Dudley JP, , 2009. West Nile virus in the new world: trends in the spread and proliferation of West Nile virus in the Western Hemisphere. Zoonoses Public Health 56: 357369.[Crossref]
  5. Komar N, Clark GG, , 2006. West Nile virus activity in Latin America and the Caribbean. Pan Am J Public Health 19: 112117.[Crossref]
  6. Dupuis AP, II Marra PP, Reitsma R, Jones MJ, Louie KL, Kramer LD, , 2005. Short report: serologic evidence for West Nile virus transmission in Puerto Rico and Cuba. Am J Trop Med Hyg 73: 474476.
  7. Barrera R, Hunsperger E, Muñoz-Jordán JL, Amador M, Diaz A, Smith J, Bessoff K, Beltran M, Vergne E, Verduin M, Lambert A, Sun W, , 2008. First isolation of West Nile virus in the Caribbean. Am J Trop Med Hyg 78: 666668.
  8. Hunsperger EA, McElroy KL, Bessoff K, Colon C, Barrera R, Munoz-Jordan JL, , 2009. West Nile virus from blood donors, vertebrates, and mosquitoes, 2007. Emerg Infect Dis 15: 12981300.[Crossref]
  9. Chien LJ, Liao TL, Shu PY, Huang JH, Gubler DJ, Chang GJ, , 2006. Development of real-time reverse transcriptase PCR assays to detect and serotype dengue viruses. J Clin Microbiol 44: 12951304.[Crossref]
  10. Lanciotti RS, Kerst AJ, Nasci RS, Godsey MS, Mitchell CJ, Savage HM, Komar N, Panella NA, Allen BC, Volpe KE, Davis BS, Roehrig JT, , 2000. Rapid detection of West Nile virus from human clinical specimens, field-collected mosquitoes, and avian samples by a TaqMan reverse transcriptase-PCR assay. J Clin Microbiol 38: 40664071.
  11. Burke DS, Nisalak A, Ussery MA, , 1982. Antibody capture immunoassay detection of Japanese encephalitis virus immunoglobulin m and g antibodies in cerebrospinal fluid. J Clin Microbiol 6: 10341042.
  12. Hunsperger E, Beltran M, Acosta LN, Jordan-Munoz J, Torres J, Tomashek KM, , 2011. Serological evaluation of suspected West Nile virus human cases following its introduction during a dengue outbreak in Puerto Rico in 2007. Clin Vaccine Immunol c.
  13. World Health Organization, 1997. Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever: Diagnosis, Treatment, Prevention and Control, 2nd ed. Geneva: World Health Organization.
  14. Sampathkumar P, , 2003. West Nile virus: epidemiology, clinical presentation, diagnosis, and prevention. Mayo Clin Proc 78: 11371144.[Crossref]
  15. Hayes EB, Sejvar JJ, Zaki SR, Lanciotti RS, Bode AV, Campell GL, , 2005. Virology, pathology, and clinical manifestations of West Nile virus disease. Emerg Infect Dis 11: 11741179.[Crossref]
  16. Gubler DJ, , 2007. The continuing spread of West Nile virus in the Western Hemisphere. Clin Infect Dis 45: 10391046.[Crossref]
  17. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2008. West Nile Virus Infection Information for Clinicians. Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/dvbid/westnile/resources/fact_sheet_clinician.htm.
  18. Kuno G, Gubler D, Oliver A, , 1993. Use of original antigenic sin theory to determine the serotypes of previous dengue infections. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 87: 103105.[Crossref]
  19. Garza MDL, Rodriguez DR, Blitvich BJ, Reyes MA, Fernandez-Salas I, Ramos J, Farfan-Ale JA, Cazares R, Martinez C, Tavitas MI, Rivas-Estilla AM, , 2010. Serologic surveillance for West Nile virus and other flaviviruses in febrile patients, encephalitic patients, and asymptomatic bloods donor in northern Mexico. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis 10: 17.[Crossref]
  20. Madden K, , 2003. West Nile virus infection and its neurological manifestations. Clin Med Res 1: 145150.[Crossref]
  21. Solomon T, Mallewa M, , 2001. Dengue and other emerging flaviviruses. J Infect 42: 104115.[Crossref]
  22. Lum LCS, Lam SK, Choy YS, George R, Harun F, , 1996. Dengue encephalitis: a true entity? Am J Trop Med Hyg 54: 256259.
  23. Solomon T, Dung NM, Vaughn DW, Kneen R, Thao LT, Raengsakulrach B, Loan HT, Day NP, Farrar J, Myint KS, Warrell MJ, James WS, Nisalak A, White NJ, , 2000. Neurological manifestations of the dengue infection. Lancet 355: 10531059.[Crossref]
  24. Cam BV, Fonsmark L, Hue NB, Phuong NT, Poulsen A, Heegaard E, , 2001. Prospective case-control study of encephalopathy in children with dengue hemorrhagic fever. Am J Trop Med Hyg 65: 848851.
  25. Mostashari F, Bunning ML, Kitsutani PT, Singer DA, Nash D, Cooper MJ, Katz N, Liljebjelke KA, Biggerstaff BJ, Fine AD, Layton MC, Mullin SM, Johnson AJ, Martin DA, Hayes EB, Campbell GL, , 2001. Epidemic West Nile encephalitis, New York, 1999: results of a household-based seroepidemiological survey. Lancet 358: 261264.[Crossref]
  26. Dietz V, Gubler DJ, Ortiz S, Kuno G, Casta-Velez A, Sather GE, , 1996. The 1986 dengue and dengue hemorrhagic fever epidemic in Puerto Rico: epidemiologic and clinical observations. P R Health Sci J 15: 201210.
  27. Rigau-Perez JG, Ayala-Lopez A, Garcia-Rivera EJ, Hudson SM, Vorndam V, Reiter P, Cano MP, Clark GG, , 2002. The reappearance of dengue-3 and a subsequent dengue-4 and dengue-1 epidemic in Puerto Rico in 1998. Am J Trop Med Hyg 67: 355362.
  28. Rigau-Perez JG, Vorndam AV, Clark GG, , 2001. The dengue and dengue hemorrhagic fever epidemic in Puerto Rico, 1994–1995. Am J Trop Med Hyg 64: 6774.
  29. Tomashek KM, Rivera A, Jordan-Munoz JL, Hunsperger E, Santiago L, Padro O, Garcia E, Sun W, , 2009. Description of a large island-wide outbreak of dengue in Puerto Rico, 2007. Am J Trop Med Hyg 81: 467474.
  30. Mohammed H, Tomashek KM, Stramer SL, Hunsperger E, , 2012. Prevalence of anti-dengue immunoglobulin G antibodies among American Red Cross blood donors in Puerto Rico, 2006. Transfusion 52: 16521656.[Crossref]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.12-0575
Loading
/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.12-0575
Loading

Data & Media loading...

  • Received : 13 Sep 2012
  • Accepted : 01 Jan 2013

Most Cited This Month

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error