Volume 89, Issue 1
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645



Cutaneous leishmaniasis is endemic to the Thar Desert of Rajasthan, Bikaner, India. The present study describes clinico-epidemiologcial data of all cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis CL in this region during 2001–2011. A total of 1,379 patients with 2,730 lesions were reported during the study period. Ages of patients ranged from 3 months to 86 years, and there was a predominance of infections in males. Most patients were from urban areas and lower middle socioeconomic groups. Lesions were dry, ulcerated nodules or plaques of different sizes commonly over face and upper limb. Skin smears were positive for parasites in 958 (69.5%) patients, and the remaining 45.8% (193 of 421) patients were positive by skin biopsy. Histopathologic analysis of the skin showed mixed granulomas consisting of macrophages, lymphocytes, epitheloid, and plasma cells. Species identification was conducted for 45 randomly selected patients by polymerase chain reaction, the infective species was . Most patients were treated with intra-lesional injections of sodium stibogluconate.


Article metrics loading...

The graphs shown below represent data from March 2017
Loading full text...

Full text loading...



  1. Vega-Lopez F, Hay RJ, Burn T, Breathnach S, Cox N, Griffiths C, , 2010. Parasitic worms and protozoa. , eds. Rook's Textbook of Dermatology. Eighth edition. Volume 2. Boston, MA: Blackwell Publishing, 37.3237.43. [Google Scholar]
  2. Desjeux P, , 2004. Leishmaniasis: current situation and new perspectives. Comp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis 27: 305318.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  3. Bari Arfan UL, , 2006. Epidemiology of cutaneous leishmaniasis. J Pak Assoc of Dermatol 16: 156162. [Google Scholar]
  4. World Health Organization, 2006. Control of Leishmaniasis. Report of WHO Secretariat, Executive board EB 118/4, 118th Session. Geneva: World Health Organization. [Google Scholar]
  5. Khandelwal K, Bumb RA, Mehta RD, Kaushal H, Lezama-Davila C, Salotra P, Satoskar AR, , 2011. A patient presenting with diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis (DCL) as a first indicator of HIV infection in India. Am J Trop Med Hyg 85: 6465.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  6. Srivastava D, Vyas MC, Joshi CK, , 1987. Clinico-epidemiological study of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Bikaner (Rajasthan). J Commun Dis 19: 326331. [Google Scholar]
  7. Lodha KR, Singh BB, Jatkar PR, , 1971. Cutaneous leishmaniasis in Bikaner, Rajasthan. Indian Vet J 48: 121. [Google Scholar]
  8. Sharma MID, Suri JC, Krishna M, Swami PN, , 1973. Epidemiological and entomological features of an out break of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Bikaner, Rajasthan during 1971. J Commun Dis 5: 5472. [Google Scholar]
  9. Sharma MID, Suri JC, Kalra NL, , 1973. Studies on cutaneous leishmaniasis in India. A note on the current status of cutaneous leishmaniasis in north-western India as determined during 1973. J Commun Dis 5: 7379. [Google Scholar]
  10. Mohan K, Suri JC, , 1975. Studies on cutaneous leishmaniasis in India. Isolation of Leishmania tropica from gerbils, sandflies and human. J Commun Dis 7: 353357. [Google Scholar]
  11. Agrawal KS, Chadda VS, , 1981. A study of epidemiology of human cutaneous leishmaniasis in Bikaner (Rajasthan). Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol 47: 303306. [Google Scholar]
  12. Vyas MC, Kalla G, Shrivastav D, Bhardwaj AK, , 1994. A clinico-epidemiological study of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Bikaner. Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol 60: 197199. [Google Scholar]
  13. Kumar R, Bumb RA, Ansari NA, Mehta RD, Salotra P, , 2007. Cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by L. tropica in Bikaner, India: parasite identification and characterization using molecular and immunologic tools. Am J Trop Med Hyg 76: 896901. [Google Scholar]
  14. Sharma NL, Mahajan VK, Kanga A, Sood A, Katoch VM, Mauricio I, Singh CD, Parwan UC, Sharma VK, Sharma RC, , 2005. Localized cutaneous leishmaniasis due to Leishmania donovani and Leishmania tropica: preliminary findings of the study of 161 new cases from a new endemic focus in Himachal Pradesh, India. Am J Trop Med Hyg 72: 819824. [Google Scholar]
  15. van der Meide WF, Jensema AJ, Akrum RA, Sabajo LO, Lai A, Fat RF, Lambregts L, Schallig HD, van der Paardt M, Faber WR, , 2008. Epidemiology of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Suriname: a study performed in 2006. Am J Trop Med Hyg 79: 192197. [Google Scholar]
  16. Yemisen M, Ulas Y, Celik H, Aksoy N, , 2012. Epidemiological clinical characteristics of 7122 patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis in Sanliurfa, between 2001 and 2008. Int J Dermatol 51: 300304.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  17. Gurel MS, Ulukanligil M, Ozbilge H, , 2002. Cutaneous leishmaniasis in Sanliurfa: epidemiologic and clinical features of last four years (1997–2000) . Int J Dermatol 41: 3237.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  18. Talari SA, Shajari G, Talaei R, , 2006. Clinical finding of cutaneous leishmaniasis as a new focus of Iran. Internet J Infect Dis 5. [Google Scholar]
  19. Al Samarai AM, Alobaidi HS, , 2009. Cutaneous leishmaniasis in Iraq. J Infect Developing Ctries 3: 123129. [Google Scholar]

Data & Media loading...

  • Received : 10 Sep 2012
  • Accepted : 10 Dec 2012
  • Published online : 10 Jul 2013

Most Cited This Month

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error