1921
Volume 88, Issue 3
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645

Abstract

Abstract.

Chloroquine (CQ) use in Mozambique was stopped in 2002 and artemether-lumefantrine (AL) was implemented in 2008. In light of no use of CQ and extensive use of AL, we determined the frequency of molecular markers of drug resistance/tolerance to CQ and AL in persons living in Linga-Linga, an isolated peninsula and in Furvela village, which is located 8 km inland. The chloroquine resistance transporter gene CVMNK wild type increased in frequency from 43.9% in 2009 to 66.4% in 2010 ( ≤ 0.001), and combined multidrug resistance gene 1 N86-184F-D1246 haplotype increased significantly between years ( = 0.039). The combination of chloroquine resistance transporter gene CVMNK and multidrug resistance gene NFD increased from 24.3% (2009) to 45.3% in (2010, = 0.017). The rapid changes observed may largely be caused by decreased use of CQ and large-scale use of AL. In the absence of a clear AL-resistance marker and the (almost) continent-wide use of AL in sub-Saharan Africa, and when considering CQ reintroduction, continued monitoring of these markers is needed.

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  • Received : 27 Aug 2012
  • Accepted : 15 Dec 2012

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