1921
Volume 89, Issue 6
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645

Abstract

Abstract.

Crimean Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is a viral zoonotic disease. During 1999–2011, 871 human cases of CCHF were diagnosed in Iran. A history of serologic conversion for CCHF virus was seen in 58.7% of 2,447 sheep samples, 25.0% of 1,091 cattle samples and 24.8% of 987 goat samples from different parts of Iran. Spatial analysis showed that the main foci of this disease in humans during these years were in eastern Iran ( < 0.01) and the second most common foci were in northeastern and central Iran. Two livestock foci were detected in the northeastern northwestern Iran. On the basis of the results of this study, infection likely entered Iran from eastern and western neighboring countries.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.12-0509
2013-12-04
2017-11-19
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/14761645/89/6/1135.html?itemId=/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.12-0509&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Whitehouse CA, , 2004. Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever. Antiviral Res 64: 145160.[Crossref]
  2. Ergonul O, , 2006. Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever. Lancet Infect Dis 6: 203214.[Crossref]
  3. Alavi-Naini R, Moghtaderi A, Koohpayeh HR, Sharifi-Mood B, Naderi M, Metanat M, Izadi M, , 2006. Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever in southeast of Iran. J Infect 52: 378382.[Crossref]
  4. Chinikar S, Ghiasi SM, Hewson R, Moradi M, Haeri A, , 2010. Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever in Iran and neighboring countries. J Clin Virol 47: 110114.[Crossref]
  5. Mostafavi E, Chinikar S, Esmaeili S, Amiri FB, Tabrizi AM, KhakiFirouz S, , 2012. Seroepidemiological survey of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever among sheep in Mazandaran Province, northern Iran. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis 12: 739742.[Crossref]
  6. Randolph SE, , 2004. Evidence that climate change has caused ‘emergence’ of tick-borne diseases in Europe? Int J Med Microbiol 293 (Suppl 37): 515.
  7. Kelly-Hope LA, Alonso WJ, Thiem VD, Canh do G, Anh DD, Lee H, Miller MA, , 2008. Temporal trends and climatic factors associated with bacterial enteric diseases in Vietnam, 1991–2001. Environ Health Perspect 116: 712.[Crossref]
  8. Haghdoost A, Alexander N, Cox J, , 2008. Modelling of malaria temporal variations in Iran. Trop Med Int Health 13: 15011508.[Crossref]
  9. Pfeiffer DU, Hugh-Jones M, , 2002. Geographical information systems as a tool in epidemiological assessment and wildlife disease management. Rev Sci Tech 21: 91102.
  10. Chumakov MP, Smirnova SE, , 1972. Detection of Antibodies to CCHF Virus in Wild and Domestic Animal Blood Sera from Iran and Africa. Moscow: Institute of Polio and Viral Encephalitis.
  11. Saidi S, Casals J, Faghih MA, , 1975. Crimean hemorrhagic fever-Congo (CHF-C) virus antibodies in man, and in domestic and small mammals, in Iran. Am J Trop Med Hyg 24: 353357.
  12. Bokaie S, Mostafavi E, Haghdoost AA, Keyvanfar H, Gooya MM, Meshkat M, Davari S, Chinikar S, , 2008. Crimean Congo hemorrhagic fever in northeast of Iran. J Animal Vet Adv 7: 354361.
  13. Chinikar S, Shayesteh M, Khakifirouz S, Jalali T, Rasi Varaie FS, Rafigh M, Mostafevi E, Shah-Hosseini N, , 2013. Nosocomial infection of Crimean–Congo haemorrhagic fever in eastern Iran: case report. Travel Med Infect Dis. 11: 252255.[Crossref]
  14. Mehravaran A, Moradi M, Telmadarraiy Z, Mostafavi E, Moradi AR, Khakifirouz S, Shah-Hossein N, Varaie FS, Jalali T, Hekmat S, Ghiasi SM, Chinikar S, , 2013. Molecular detection of Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever (CCHF) virus in ticks from southeastern Iran. Ticks Tick Borne Dis. 4: 3538.[Crossref]
  15. Rezaeian M, , 2004. Large scale clustering and its application to the health and epidemiological studies. Journal of School of Public Health and Institute of Public Health Research. 3: 6170.
  16. Anselin L, , 1995. Local indicators of spatial association—LISA. Geogr Anal 27: 93115.[Crossref]
  17. Getis A, Ord JK, , 2010. The analysis of spatial association by use of distance statistics. Perspectives on Spatial Data Analysis. New York: Springer, 127145.[Crossref]
  18. Štěpánek P, Zahradníček P, Huth R, , 2011. Interpolation techniques used for data quality control and calculation of technical series: an example of central European daily time series. Q J Hungarian Meteorological Service. 115: 8798.
  19. Ormsby T, Napoleon E, Burke R, , 2004. Getting to Know ArcGIS Desktop: The Basics of ArcView, ArcEditor, and ArcInfo Updated for ArcGIS 9. Redlands, CA: ESRI Press.
  20. Fabi A, Varvaro L, , 2009. Application of geostatistics in studying epidemiology of hazelnut diseases: a case study. Acta Hortic 845: 507514.[Crossref]
  21. Swanepoel R, Shepherd AJ, Leman PA, Shepherd SP, McGillivray GM, Erasmus MJ, Searle LA, Gill DE, , 1987. Epidemiologic and clinical features of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever in southern Africa. Am J Trop Med Hyg 36: 120132.
  22. Drosten C, Minnak D, Emmerich P, Schmitz H, Reinicke T, , 2002. Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever in Kosovo. J Clin Microbiol 40: 11221123.[Crossref]
  23. Cromley EK, , 2003. GIS and disease. Annu Rev Public Health 24: 724.[Crossref]
  24. Animal Trafficking Trade and Iranian Officials Concerns, 2008. Interview with Dr. A. Mokhtari, Reporter of the Assembly Health Committee of Iranian Parliament. Report of Government Suspended Organization.
  25. Gonzalez JP, Camicas JL, Cornet JP, Wilson ML, , 1998. Biological and clinical responses of west African sheep to Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever virus experimental infection. Res Virol 149: 445455.[Crossref]
  26. Chinikar S, Ghiasi S, Hewson R, Moradi M, Haeri A, , 2010. Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever in Iran and neighboring countries. J Clin Virol 47: 110114.[Crossref]
  27. Wilson ML, LeGuenno B, Guillaud M, Desoutter D, Gonzalez JP, Camicas JL, , 1990. Distribution of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever viral antibody in Senegal: environmental and vectorial correlates. Am J Trop Med Hyg 43: 557566.
  28. Shepherd AJ, Leman PA, Swanepoel R, , 1989. Viremia and antibody response of small African and laboratory animals to Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus infection. Am J Trop Med Hyg 40: 541547.
  29. Tahmasebi F, Ghiasi SM, Mostafavi E, Moradi M, Piazak N, Mozafari A, Haeri A, Fooks AR, Chinikar S, , 2010. Molecular epidemiology of Crimean- Congo hemorrhagic fever virus genome isolated from ticks of Hamadan Province of Iran. J Vector Borne Dis 47: 211216.
  30. Schröter M, Härdtle W, von Oheimb G, , 2012. Crown plasticity and neighborhood interactions of European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) in an old-growth forest. Eur J For Res 131: 787798.[Crossref]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.12-0509
Loading
/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.12-0509
Loading

Data & Media loading...

  • Received : 19 Aug 2012
  • Accepted : 07 Sep 2013

Most Cited This Month

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error