1921
Volume 89, Issue 1
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645

Abstract

Abstract.

Lymphatic filariasis (LF) is a vector-borne parasitic disease that can clinically manifest as disabling lymphedema. Although the LF elimination program aims to reduce disability and to interrupt transmission, there has been a scarcity of disease morbidity management programs, particularly on a national scale. This report describes the implementation of the first nationwide LF lymphedema management program. The program, which was initiated in Togo in 2007, focuses on patient behavioral change. Its goal is two-fold: to achieve a sustainable program on a national-scale, and to serve as a model for other countries. The program has five major components: 1) train at least one health staff in lymphedema care in each health facility in Togo; 2) inform people with a swollen leg that care is available at their dispensary; 3) train patients on self-care; 4) provide a support system to motivate patients to continue self-care by training community health workers or family members and providing in home follow-up; and 5) integrate lymphedema management into the curriculum for medical staff. The program achieved the inclusion of lymphedema management in the routine healthcare package. The evaluation after three years estimated that 79% of persons with a swollen leg in Togo were enrolled in the program. The adherence rate to the proposed World Health Organization treatment of washing, exercise, and leg elevation was more than 70% after three years of the program, resulting in a stabilization of the lymphedema stage and a slight decrease in reported acute attacks among program participants. Health staff and patients consider the program successful in reaching and educating the patients. After the external funding ended, the morbidity management program is maintained through routine Ministry of Health activities.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.12-0453
2013-07-10
2017-09-24
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/14761645/89/1/16.html?itemId=/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.12-0453&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. World Health Organization, 2012. Lymphatic Filariasis Fact Sheet No. 102. World Health Organization Media Center. Available at: http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs102/en/. Accessed May 1, 2012.
  2. World Health Organization, 2004. The World Health Report: Changing History. Available at: http://www.who.int/whr/2004/en/. Accessed May 5, 2012.
  3. World Health Organization, 2011. Managing morbidity and preventing disability in the global programme to eliminate lymphatic filariasis: WHO position statement. Wkly Epidemiol Rec 86: 581585.
  4. Person B, Bartholomew LK, Gyapong M, Addiss D, van den Borne B, , 2009. Health-related stigma among women with lymphatic filariasis from the Dominican Republic and Ghana. Soc Sci Med 68: 3038.[Crossref]
  5. Richard S, Mathieu E, Addiss D, Sodahlon Y, , 2007. A survey of treatment practices and burden of lymphoedema in Togo. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 101: 391397.[Crossref]
  6. Perera M, Whitehead M, Molyneux D, Weerasooriya M, Gunatilleke G, , 2007. Neglected patients with a neglected disease? A qualitative study of lymphatic filariasis. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 1: e128.[Crossref]
  7. Bandyopadhyay L, , 1996. Lymphatic filariasis and the women of India. Soc Sci Med 42: 14011410.[Crossref]
  8. Mathieu E, Amann J, Eigege A, Richards F, Sodahlon Y, , 2008. Collecting baseline information for national morbidity alleviation programs: different methods to estimate lymphatic filariasis morbidity prevalence. Am J Trop Med Hyg 78: 153158.
  9. Ramaiah KD, Das PK, Michael E, Guyatt H, , 2000. The economic burden of lymphatic filariasis in India. Parasitol Today 16: 251253.[Crossref]
  10. WHA50, 29, 1997. Elimination of Lymphatic Filariasis as a Public Health Problem, in Resolution of the Executive Board of the WHO: Fiftieth World Health Assembly, Agenda Item 20. Available at: http://www.who.int/lymphatic_filariasis/resources/WHA_50%2029.pdf. Accessed May 15, 2012.
  11. Seim AR, Dreyer G, Addiss DG, , 1999. Controlling morbidity and interrupting transmission: twin pillars of lymphatic filariasis elimination. Rev Soc Bras Med Trop 23: 325328.[Crossref]
  12. Ottesen E, Hooper P, Bradley M, Biswas G, , 2008. The global programme to eliminate lymphatic filariasis: health impact after 8 years. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2: e317.[Crossref]
  13. Suma TK, Shenoy RK, Kumaraswami V, , 2002. Efficacy and sustainability of a footcare programme in preventing acute attacks of adenolymphangitis in Brugian filariasis. TM & IH. Trop Med Int Health 7: 763766.[Crossref]
  14. Mohammed K, Molyneux D, Albonico M, Rio F, , 2006. Progress towards eliminating lymphatic filariasis in Zanzibar: a model programme. Trends Parasitol 22: 340344.[Crossref]
  15. McPherson T, , 2003. Impact on the quality of life of lymphoedema patients following introduction of a hygiene and skin care regimen in a Guyanese community endemic for lymphatic filariasis: a preliminary clinical intervention study. Filaria J 2: 1.[Crossref]
  16. World Health Organization, 2004. Lymphatic filariasis: progress of disability prevention activities. Wkly Epidemiol Rec 79: 417424.
  17. Wijesinghe RS, Wickremasinghe AR, Ekanayake S, Perera MS, , 2007. Efficacy of a limb-care regime in preventing acute adenolymphangitis in patients with lymphoedema caused by bancroftian filariasis, in Colombo, Sri Lanka. Ann Trop Med Parasitol 101: 487497.[Crossref]
  18. Central Intelligence Agency, 2012. The World Fact Book, Africa: Togo. Available at: https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/to.html. Accessed February 3, 2012.
  19. World Health Organization, 2010. Global programme to eliminate lymphatic filariasis: progress report on mass drug administration in 2009. Wkly Epidemiol Rec 85: 365372.
  20. World Health Organization, 2011. Managing morbidity and preventing disability in the Global Programme to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis: WHO position statement. Wkly Epidemiol Rec 86: 581588.
  21. Dreyer G, Addiss D, Dreyer P, Noroes J, , 2002. Basic Lymphoedema Management: Treatment and Prevention of Problems Associated with Lymphatic Filariasis. Hollis, NH: Hollis Publishing.
  22. Coreil J, Wilke J, Pintado I, , 2004. Cultural models of illness and recovery in breast cancer support groups. Qual Health Res 14: 905923.[Crossref]
  23. Mayxay M, Newton PN, Yeung S, Pongvongsa T, Phompida S, Phetsouvanh R, White NJ, , 2004. Short communication: an assessment of the use of malaria rapid tests by village health volunteers in rural Laos. Trop Med Int Health 9: 325329.[Crossref]
  24. Hawkes M, Katsuva JP, Masumbuko CK, , 2009. Use and limitations of malaria rapid diagnostic testing by community health workers in war-torn Demogratic Republic of Congo. Malar J 8: 308.[Crossref]
  25. Nsungwa-Sabiiti J, Källander K, Nsabagasani X, Namusisi K, Pariyo G, Johansson A, Tomson G, Peterson S, , 2004. Local fever illness classifications: implications for home management of malaria strategies. Trop Med Int Health 9: 11911199.[Crossref]
  26. Dunyo SK, Ahorlu CK, Simonsen PE, , 1997. Scarification as a risk factor for rapid progression of filarial elephantiasis. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 91: 446.[Crossref]
  27. Brengues J, Subra R, Bouchite B, , 1969. Étude parasitologique, clinique et entomologique sur la filariose de Bancroft dans le sud du Dahomey et du Togo. Série Entomol Méd Parasitol 7: 279305.
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.12-0453
Loading
/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.12-0453
Loading

Data & Media loading...

  • Received : 27 Jul 2012
  • Accepted : 03 Mar 2013

Most Cited This Month

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error