Volume 88, Issue 4
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645



In this study, we evaluate the effect of participatory Ecohealth interventions on domestic reinfestation of the Chagas disease vector after village-wide suppression of the vector population using a residual insecticide. The study was conducted in the rural community of La Brea, Guatemala between 2002 and 2009 where vector infestation was analyzed within a spatial data framework based on entomological and socio-economic surveys of homesteads within the village. Participatory interventions focused on community awareness and low-cost home improvements using local materials to limit areas of refuge and alternative blood meals for the vector within the home, and potential shelter for the vector outside the home. As a result, domestic infestation was maintained at ≤ 3% and peridomestic infestation at ≤ 2% for 5 years beyond the last insecticide spraying, in sharp contrast to the rapid reinfestation experienced in earlier insecticide only interventions.


Article metrics loading...

The graphs shown below represent data from March 2017
Loading full text...

Full text loading...



  1. Schofield C, , 2000. Challenges of Chagas Disease Vector Control in Central America. Global Collaboration for Development of Pesticides for Public Health: World Health Organization. [Google Scholar]
  2. Rassi A, Jr Rassi A, Marin-Neto JA, , 2010. Chagas disease. Lancet 375: 13881402.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  3. Nakagawa J, Cordon-Rosales C, Juarez J, Itzep C, Nonami T, , 2003. Impact of residual spraying on Rhodnius prolixus and Triatoma dimidiata in the department of Zacapa in Guatemala. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz 98: 277281.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  4. Coura JR, Vinas PA, , 2010. Chagas disease: a new worldwide challenge. Nature 465: S6S7.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  5. Hashimoto K, Cordon-Rosales C, Trampe R, Kawabata M, , 2006. Impact of single and multiple residual sprayings of pyrethroid insecticides against Triatoma dimidiata (Reduviiade; Triatominae), the principal vector of Chagas disease in Jutiapa, Guatemala. Am J Trop Med Hyg 75: 226230. [Google Scholar]
  6. Manne J, Nakagawa J, Yamagata Y, Goehler A, Brownstein JS, Castro MC, , 2012. Triatomine infestation in Guatemala: spatial assessment after two rounds of vector control. Am J Trop Med Hyg 86: 446454.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  7. Nakagawa J, Hashimoto K, Cordón-Rosales C, Abraham Juárez J, Trampe R, Marroquín Marroquín L, , 2003. The impact of vector control on Triatoma dimidiata in the Guatemalan department of Jutiapa. Ann Trop Med Parasitol 97: 288297.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  8. Dumonteil E, Ruiz-Pina H, Rodriguez-Felix E, Barrera-Perez M, Ramirez-Sierra MJ, Rabinovich JE, Menu F, , 2004. Re-infestation of houses by Triatoma dimidiata after intra-domicile insecticide application in the Yucatan peninsula, Mexico. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz 99: 253256.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  9. Tabaru Y, Monroy MC, Rodas A, Mejia M, Rosales R, , 1998. Chemical control of Triatoma dimidiata and Rhodnius prolixus (Reduviidae: Triatominae), the principal vectors of Chagas' disease in Guatemala. Medical Entomology and Zoology 49: 6.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  10. Charron DF, , 2012. Ecosystem approaches to health for a global sustainability agenda. EcoHealth 9: 256266.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  11. Dumonteil E, Gourbiere S, Barrera-Perez M, Rodriguez-Felix E, Ruiz-Pina H, Banos-Lopez O, Ramirez-Sierra MJ, Menu F, Rabinovich JE, , 2002. Geographic distribution of Triatoma dimidiata and transmission dynamics of Trypanosoma cruzi in the Yucatan peninsula of Mexico. Am J Trop Med Hyg 67: 176183. [Google Scholar]
  12. Rabinovich JE, Kitron UD, Obed Y, Yoshioka M, Gottdenker N, Chaves LF, , 2011. Ecological patterns of blood-feeding by kissing-bugs (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae). Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz 106: 479494.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  13. Tabaru Y, Monroy MC, Rodas A, Mejia M, Rosales R, , 1999. The geographical distribution of vectors of Chagas' disease and populations at risk of infection in Guatemala. Medical Entomology and Zoology 50: 917.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  14. Getis A, Ord JK, Longley P, Batty M, , 1996. Local spatial statistics: an overview. , eds. Spatial Analysis: Modeling in a GIS Environment. Cambridge, UK: Geoinformation International, 261277. [Google Scholar]
  15. Pellecer M, Dorn P, Bustamante D, Rodas A, Monroy M, , 2013. Vector blood meals are an early indicator of the effectiveness of the Ecohealth approach in halting Chagas transmission in Guatemala. Am J Trop Med Hyg 88: 638644.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  16. World Weather Online, 2012. Jutiapa Weather, Guatemala Weather Averages. Available at: http://www.worldweatheronline.com/. Accessed December 3, 2012. [Google Scholar]
  17. Bustamante DM, Monroy C, Pineda S, Rodas A, Castro X, Ayala V, Quiñónes J, Moguel B, Trampe R, , 2009. Risk factors for intradomiciliary infestation by the Chagas disease vector Triatoma dimidiata in Jutiapa, Guatemala. Cad Saude Publica 25: S83S92.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  18. Monroy MC, Bustamante DM, Pineda S, Rodas A, Castro X, Ayala V, Quinones J, Moguel B, , 2009. House improvements and community participation in the control of Triatoma dimidiata re-infestation in Jutiapa, Guatemala. Cad Saude Publica 25 (Suppl 1): S168S178.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  19. Zeledon R, Vargas LG, , 1984. The role of dirt floors and of firewood in rural dwellings in the epidemiology of Chagas' disease in Costa Rica. Am J Trop Med Hyg 33: 232235. [Google Scholar]
  20. World Health Organization, 1991. Control of Chagas Disease. Report of a WHO Expert Committee. WHO Technical Report Series 811: 195. [Google Scholar]
  21. Mooney CZ, Duval RD, , 1993. Bootstrapping: A Nonparametric Approach to Statistical Inference. Sage University Paper series on Quantitative Applications in the Social Sciences, 07-095. Newbury Park, CA: Sage. [Google Scholar]
  22. Isaaks EH, Srivastava RM, , 1989. Applied Geostatistics. New York: Oxford University Press. [Google Scholar]
  23. Cecere MC, Vazquez-Prokopec GM, Gurtler RE, Kitron U, , 2006. Reinfestation sources for Chagas disease vector, Triatoma infestans, Argentina. Emerg Infect Dis 12: 10961102.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  24. Villarini M, Moretti M, Pasquini R, Scassellati-Sforzolini G, Fatigoni C, Marcarelli M, Monarca S, Rodriguez AV, , 1998. In vitro genotoxic effects of the insecticide deltamethrin in human peripheral blood leukocytes: DNA damage (‘comet’ assay) in relation to the induction of sister-chromatid exchanges and micronuclei. Toxicology 130: 129139.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  25. Coutinho CF, Souza-Santos R, Lima MM, , 2012. Combining geospatial analysis and exploratory study of triatomine ecology to evaluate the risk of Chagas disease in a rural locality. Acta Trop 121: 3033.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  26. Vazquez-Prokopec GM, Cecere MC, Kitron U, Gurtler RE, , 2008. Environmental and demographic factors determining the spatial distribution of Triatoma guasayana in peridomestic and semi-sylvatic habitats of rural northwestern Argentina. Med Vet Entomol 22: 273282.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  27. Pacheco-Tucuch FS, Ramirez-Sierra MJ, Gourbiere S, Dumonteil E, , 2012. Public street lights increase house infestation by the Chagas Disease Vector Triatoma dimidiata . PLoS ONE 7: e36207.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  28. Monroy MC, Bustamante DM, Rodas AG, Enriquez ME, Rosales RG, , 2003. Habitats, dispersion and invasion of sylvatic Triatoma dimidiata (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae) in Peten, Guatemala. J Med Entomol 40: 800806.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]

Data & Media loading...

Supplementary PDF

  • Received : 25 Jul 2012
  • Accepted : 28 Dec 2012
  • Published online : 03 Apr 2013

Most Cited This Month

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error