Volume 88, Issue 3
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645



In Australia, dengue is not endemic, although the vector mosquito is established in far north Queensland (FNQ). has recently invaded the Torres Strait region, but is not established on mainland Australia. To maintain dengue-free, public health departments in FNQ closely monitor introduced dengue infections and confine outbreaks through rigorous vector control responses. To safeguard mainland Australia from establishment, pre-emptive strategies are required to reduce its breeding in difficult to access habitats. We compare the residual efficacy of VectoBac WDG, var. (Bti) formulation, as a residual treatment when misted across a typical FNQ bushland using a backpack mister (Stihl SR 420 Mist Blower) at two dose rates up to 16 m. Semi-field condition results, over 16 weeks, indicate that Bti provided high mortality rates (> 80%) sustained for 11 weeks. Mist application penetrated 16 m of dense bushland without efficacy decline over distance.


Article metrics loading...

The graphs shown below represent data from March 2017
Loading full text...

Full text loading...



  1. World Health Organization, 2009. Dengue: Guidelines for Diagnosis, Treatment, Prevention and Control. Geneva: World Health Organization. [Google Scholar]
  2. Gubler DJ, , 2006. Dengue/dengue hemorrhagic fever: history and current status. Novartis Found Symp 277: 316; discussion 16–22, 71–73, 251–253.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  3. Kay BH, Barker-Hudson P, Stallman ND, Wiemers MA, Marks EN, Holt PJ, Muscio M, Gorman BM, , 1984. Dengue fever. Reappearance in northern Queensland after 26 years. Med J Aust 140: 264268. [Google Scholar]
  4. Vazquez-Prokopec GM, Kitron U, Montgomery B, Horne P, Ritchie SA, , 2010. Quantifying the spatial dimension of dengue virus epidemic spread within a tropical urban environment. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 4: e920.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  5. Azil AH, Long SA, Ritchie SA, Williams CR, , 2010. The development of predictive tools for pre-emptive dengue vector control: a study of Aedes aegypti abundance and meteorological variables in North Queensland, Australia. Trop Med Int Health 15: 11901197.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  6. Ritchie SA, Vazquez-Prokopec GM, , 2010. The 2009 Cairns dengue epidemic: our perfect storm. Local solutions to global threats. 9th Mosquito Control Association of Australia Conference. Caloundra: Mosquito Control Association of Australia, September 12–15, 2010. [Google Scholar]
  7. Russell RC, , 1998. Vectors vs. humans in Australia–who is on top down under? An update on vector-borne disease and research on vectors in Australia. J Vector Ecol 23: 146. [Google Scholar]
  8. Ritchie SA, Moore P, Carruthers M, Williams C, Montgomery B, Foley P, Ahboo S, van den Hurk AF, Lindsay MD, Cooper B, Beebe N, Russell RC, , 2006. Discovery of a widespread infestation of Aedes albopictus in the Torres Strait, Australia. J Am Mosq Control Assoc 22: 358365.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  9. Hayden MH, Uejio CK, Walker K, Ramberg F, Moreno R, Rosales C, Gameros M, Mearns LO, Zielinski-Gutierrez E, Janes CR, , 2010. Microclimate and human factors in the divergent ecology of Aedes aegypti along the Arizona, U.S./Sonora, MX border. EcoHealth 7: 6477.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  10. Barker-Hudson P, Jones R, Kay BH, , 1988. Categorization of domestic breeding habitats of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) in Northern Queensland, Australia. J Med Entomol 25: 178182.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  11. Montgomery BL, Ritchie SA, , 2002. Roof gutters: a key container for Aedes aegypti and Ochlerotatus notoscriptus (Diptera: Culicidae) in Australia. Am J Trop Med Hyg 67: 244246. [Google Scholar]
  12. Williams CR, Johnson PH, Long SA, Rapley LP, Ritchie SA, , 2008. Rapid estimation of Aedes aegypti population size using simulation modeling, with a novel approach to calibration and field validation. J Med Entomol 45: 11731179.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  13. Lam PH, Boon CS, Yng NY, Benjamin S, , 2010. Aedes albopictus control with spray application of Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis, strain AM 65-52. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health 41: 10711081. [Google Scholar]
  14. Stoops CA, , 2005. Influence of Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis on oviposition of Aedes albopictus (Skuse). J Vector Ecol 30: 4144. [Google Scholar]
  15. Nasci RS, Wright GB, Willis FS, , 1994. Control of Aedes albopictus larvae using time-release larvicide formulations in Louisiana. J Am Mosq Control Assoc 10: 16. [Google Scholar]
  16. Russell RC, Williams CR, Sutherst RW, Ritchie SA, , 2005. Aedes (Stegomyia) albopictus–a dengue threat for southern Australia? Commun Dis Intell 29: 296298. [Google Scholar]
  17. Ritchie SA, Rapley LP, Benjamin S, , 2010. Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis (Bti) provides residual control of Aedes aegypti in small containers. Am J Trop Med Hyg 82: 10531059.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  18. Chen CD, Lee HL, Nazni WA, Seleena B, Lau KW, Daliza AR, Ella Syafinas S, Mohd Sofian A, , 2009. Field effectiveness of Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis (Bti) against Aedes (Stegomyia) aegypti (Linnaeus) in ornamental ceramic containers with common aquatic plants. Trop Biomed 26: 100105. [Google Scholar]
  19. Tan AW, Loke SR, Benjamin S, Lee HL, Chooi KH, Sofian-Azirun M, , 2012. Spray application of Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis (Bti strain am65-52) against Aedes aegypti (L.) and Ae. albopictus Skuse populations and impact on dengue transmission in a dengue endemic residential site in Malaysia. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health 43: 296310. [Google Scholar]
  20. World Health Organization, 2007. WHO specifications and evaluations for Public Health Pesticides: Bacillus thuringiensis subspecies israelensis Strain AM65-52. Geneva: World Health Organization.
  21. Mulla MS, Thavara U, Tawatsin A, Chompoosri J, , 2004. Procedures for the evaluation of field efficacy of slow-release formulations of larvicides against Aedes aegypti in water-storage containers. J Am Mosq Control Assoc 20: 6473. [Google Scholar]
  22. Lacey LA, , 2007. Bacillus thuringiensis serovariety israelensis and Bacillus sphaericus for mosquito control. J Am Mosq Control Assoc 23: 133163.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  23. Lee HL, Gregorio ER, Jr Khadri MS, Seleena P, , 1996. Ultralow volume application of Bacillus thuringiensis ssp. israelensis for the control of mosquitoes. J Am Mosq Control Assoc 12: 651655. [Google Scholar]
  24. Australian Bureau of Meteorology, 2012. Australian Bureau of Meteorology Website. Available at: http://www.bom.gov.au. Accessed October 4, 2012.
  25. Yap HH, Chong AS, Adanan CR, Chong NL, Rohaizat B, Malik YA, Lim SY, , 1997. Performance of ULV formulations (Pesguard 102/Vectobac 12AS) against three mosquito species. J Am Mosq Control Assoc 13: 384388. [Google Scholar]
  26. Lima JB, de Melo NV, Valle D, , 2005. Residual effect of two Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis products assayed against Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) in laboratory and outdoors at Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo 47: 125130.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]

Data & Media loading...

  • Received : 16 Jun 2012
  • Accepted : 07 Nov 2012
  • Published online : 06 Mar 2013

Most Cited This Month

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error