1921
Volume 88, Issue 3
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645

Abstract

Abstract.

A review of the laboratory-confirmed cases of Murray Valley encephalitis (MVE) from Western Australia between 2009 and 2011 was conducted to describe the clinical, laboratory, and radiological features of the disease. The nine encephalitis patients presented with altered mental state and seizures, tremor, weakness, or paralysis. All patients developed a raised C-reactive protein, whereas most developed acute liver injury, neutrophilia, and thrombocytosis. All patients with encephalitis developed cerebral peduncle involvement on early magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The absence of thalamic MRI hyperintensity during the acute illness, with or without leptomeningeal enhancement, predicted a better neurological outcome, whereas those patients with widespread abnormalities involving the thalamus, midbrain, and cerebral cortex or the cerebellum had devastating neurological outcomes. MRI scans repeated months after acute illness showed destruction of the thalamus and basal ganglia, cortex, or cerebellum. These findings may help clinicians predict the neurological outcome when evaluating patients with MVE.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.12-0379
2013-03-06
2017-09-21
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/14761645/88/3/481.html?itemId=/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.12-0379&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Spencer JD, Azoulas J, Broom AK, Buick TD, Currie B, Daniels PW, Doggett SL, Hapgood GD, Jarrett PJ, Lindsay MD, Lloyd G, Mackenzie JS, Merianos A, Moran RJ, Ritchie SA, Russell RC, Smith DW, Stenhouse FO, Whelan PI, , 2001. Murray Valley encephalitis virus surveillance and control initiatives in Australia. National Arbovirus Advisory Committee of the Communicable Diseases Network Australia. Commun Dis Intell 25: 3347.
  2. Smith DW, Speers DJ, Mackenzie JS, , 2011. The viruses of Australia and the risk to tourists. Travel Med Infect Dis 9: 113125.[Crossref]
  3. Knox J, Cowan RU, Doyle JS, Ligtermoet MK, Archer JS, Burrow JNC, Tong SYC, Currie BJ, Mackenzie JS, Smith DW, Catton M, Moran RJ, Aboltins CA, Richards JS, , 2012. Murray Valley encephalitis: a review of clinical features, diagnosis and treatment. Med J Aust 196: 322325.[Crossref]
  4. Mackenzie JS, Smith DW, Broom AK, Bucens MR, , 1993. Australian encephalitis in Western Australia, 1978–1991. Med J Aust 158: 591595.
  5. Burrow JN, Whelan PI, Kilburn CJ, Fisher DA, Currie BJ, Smith DW, , 1998. Austalian encephalitis in the Northern Territory: clinical and epidemiological features, 1987–1996. Aust N Z J Med 28: 590596.[Crossref]
  6. Cordova SP, Smith DW, Broom AK, Lindsay MD, Dowse GK, Beers MY, , 2000. Murray Valley encephalitis in Western Australia in 2000, with evidence of southerly spread. Commun Dis Intell 24: 368372.
  7. Communicable Diseases Network of Australia, 2012. Australian National Notifiable Diseases Case Definitions. Commonwealth Department of Health and Ageing. Available at: http://www.health.gov.au/internet/main/publishing.nsf/content/cdna-casedefinitions.htm. Accessed March 5, 2012.
  8. Hall RA, Broom AK, Hartnett AC, Howard MJ, Mackenzie JS, , 1995. Immunodominant epitopes on the NS1 protein of MVE and KUN viruses serve as targets for a blocking ELISA to detect virus-specific antibodies in sentinel animal serum. J Virol Methods 51: 201210.[Crossref]
  9. Tanaka M, , 1993. Rapid identification of flavivirus using the polymerase chain reaction. J Virol Methods 41: 311322.[Crossref]
  10. Levi ME, Quan D, Ho JT, Kleinschmidt-DeMasters BK, Tyler KL, Grazia TJ, , 2010. Impact of rituximab-associated B-cell defects on West Nile virus meningoencephalitis in solid organ transplant recipients. Clin Transplant 24: 223228.[Crossref]
  11. Broom AK, Lindsay MD, Harrington SA, Smith DW, , 2002. Investigation of the southern limits of Murray Valley encephalitis activity in Western Australia during the 2000 wet season. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis 2: 8795.[Crossref]
  12. Schuster G, Ebert EE, Stevenson MA, Corner RJ, Johansen CA, , 2011. Application of satellite precipitation data to analyse and model arbovirus activity in the tropics. Int J Health Geogr 10: 8.[Crossref]
  13. Brown A, Bolisetty S, Whelan P, Smith D, Wheaton G, , 2002. Reappearance of human cases due to Murray Valley encephalitis virus and Kunjin virus in Central Australia after an absence of 26 years. Commun Dis Intell 26: 3944.
  14. Stich A, Gunther S, Drosten C, Emmerich P, Dwyer DE, Hueston L, Hetzel W, Kirschner A, Fleischer K, , 2003. Clinical and laboratory findings on the first imported case of Murray Valley encephalitis in Europe. Clin Infect Dis 37: 1921.[Crossref]
  15. Wong SH, Smith DW, Fallon MJ, Kermode AG, , 2005. Murray Valley encephalitis mimicking herpes simplex encephalitis. J Clin Neurosci 12: 822824.[Crossref]
  16. Kienzle N, Boyes L, , 2003. Murray Valley encephalitis: case report and review of neuroradiological features. Australas Radiol 47: 6163.[Crossref]
  17. Einsiedel L, Kat E, Ravindran J, Slavotinek J, Gordon DL, , 2003. MR findings in Murray Valley encephalitis. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 24: 13791382.
  18. Douglas MW, Stephens DP, Burrow JNC, Anstey NM, Talbot K, Currie BJ, , 2007. Murray Valley encephalitis in an adult traveler complicated by long-term flaccid paralysis: case report and review of the literature. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 101: 284288.[Crossref]
  19. Mackenzie JS, Smith DW, Broom AK, Bucens MR, , 1993. Australian encephalitis in Western Australia, 1978–1991. Med J Aust 158: 591595.
  20. Hills S, , 2001. Murray Valley encephalitis in Mt Isa, north Queensland. Commun Dis Intell 25: 48.
  21. Bennett NM, , 2001. Murray Valley encephalitis. Commun Dis Intell 25: 154155.
  22. Murray KO, Baraniuk S, Resnick M, Arafat R, Kilborn C, Shallenberger R, York TL, Martinez D, Malkoff M, Elgawley N, Mcneely W, Khuwaja SA, , 2008. Clinical investigation of hospitalized human cases of West Nile virus infection in Houston, Texas, 2002–2004. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis 8: 167174.[Crossref]
  23. Misra UK, Kalita J, Goel D, Mathur A, , 2003. Clinical, radiological and neurophysiological spectrum of JEV encephalitis and other non-specific encephalitis during post-monsoon period in India. Neurol India 51: 5559.
  24. Zak IT, Altinok D, Merline JR, Chander S, Kish KK, , 2005. West Nile virus infection. Am J Roentgenol 184: 957961.[Crossref]
  25. McMinn P, Carman P, Smith DW, , 2000. Early diagnosis of Murray Valley encephalitis by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. Pathology 32: 4951.[Crossref]
  26. Ali M, Safriel Y, Sohi J, Llave A, Weathers S, , 2005. West Nile virus infection: MR imaging findings in the nervous system. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 26: 289297.
  27. Handique SK, Das RR, Barman K, Medhi N, Saharia B, Saikia P, Ahmed SA, , 2006. Temporal lobe involvement in japanese encephalitis: problems in differential diagnosis. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 27: 10271031.
  28. Petropoulou KA, Gordon SM, Prayson RA, Ruggierri PM, , 2005. West Nile virus meningoencephalitis: MR imaging findings. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 26: 19861995.
  29. Robertson EG, , 1952. Murray Valley encephalitis; pathological aspects. Med J Aust 1: 107110.
  30. Sejvar JJ, Haddad MB, Tierney BC, , 2003. Neurologic manifestations and outcome of West Nile virus infection. JAMA 290: 511515.[Crossref]
  31. Rao N, Char D, Gnatz S, , 2005. Rehabilitation outcomes of 5 patients with severe West Nile infection: a case series. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 86: 449452.[Crossref]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.12-0379
Loading
/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.12-0379
Loading

Data & Media loading...

  • Received : 12 Jun 2012
  • Accepted : 03 Dec 2012

Most Cited This Month

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error