Volume 89, Issue 1
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645



Schistosomiasis control efforts mainly target school–aged children. We studied the epidemiology of schistosomiasis in two high-risk communities in south Côte d'Ivoire, placing particular emphasis on pre-school–aged children. We used a suite of diagnostic techniques, including Kato–Katz, urine filtration, reagent strips, and urine circulating cathodic antigen cassettes. Risk factors for schistosomiasis were determined by focus group discussions and a structured questionnaire. The prevalence of in the two study villages among the pre-school–aged children (age < 6 years) was 20.9% and 25.0%, whereas several-fold higher prevalences were found in school–aged children (58.7–68.4%) and adolescents/adults (59.5–61.7%). The prevalence of in the three age groups was 5.9–17.3%, 10.9–18.4%, and 3.8–21.3%, respectively. Most participants had light-intensity infections. Mothers' occupations and older siblings play important roles in the epidemiology of schistosomiasis in pre-schoolers. In the current epidemiologic settings, more attention is warranted on pre-school–aged children and adolescents/adults for successful schistosomiasis control.


Article metrics loading...

The graphs shown below represent data from March 2017
Loading full text...

Full text loading...



  1. Southgate VR, Rollinson D, Tchuem Tchuenté LA, Hagan P, , 2005. Towards control of schistosomiasis in sub-Saharan Africa. J Helminthol 79: 181185.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  2. Hotez PJ, Molyneux DH, Fenwick A, Ottesen E, Ehrlich Sachs S, Sachs JD, , 2006. Incorporating a rapid-impact package for neglected tropical diseases with programs for HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis, and malaria. PLoS Med 3: e102.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  3. Steinmann P, Keiser J, Bos R, Tanner M, Utzinger J, , 2006. Schistosomiasis and water resources development: systematic review, meta-analysis, and estimates of people at risk. Lancet Infect Dis 6: 411425.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  4. Utzinger J, Raso G, Brooker S, de Savigny D, Tanner M, Ørnbjerg N, Singer BH, N'Goran EK, , 2009. Schistosomiasis and neglected tropical diseases: towards integrated and sustainable control and a word of caution. Parasitology 136: 18591874.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  5. Sleigh AC, Mott KE, Hoff R, Barreto ML, Mota EA, Maguire JH, Sherlock I, Weller TH, , 1985. Three-year prospective study of the evolution of Manson's schistosomiasis in north-east Brazil. Lancet 326: 6366.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  6. Woolhouse MEJ, , 1998. Patterns in parasite epidemiology: the peak shift. Parasitol Today 14: 428434.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  7. Wilkins HA, Goll PH, Marshall TF, Moore PJ, , 1984. Dynamics of Schistosoma haematobium infection in a Gambian community. III. Acquisition and loss of infection. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 78: 227232.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  8. Butterworth AE, Capron M, Cordingley JS, Dalton PR, Dunne DW, Kariuki HC, Kimani G, Koech D, Mugambi M, Ouma JH, Prentice MA, Richardson BA, Arap Siongok TK, Sturrock RF, Taylor DW, , 1985. Immunity after treatment of human schistosomiasis mansoni. II. Identification of resistant individuals, and analysis of their immune responses. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 79: 393408.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  9. Verani JR, Abudho B, Montgomery SP, Mwinzi PN, Shane HL, Butler SE, Karanja DM, Secor WE, , 2011. Schistosomiasis among young children in Usoma, Kenya. Am J Trop Med Hyg 84: 787791.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  10. Allen HE, Crompton DWT, de Silva N, LoVerde PT, Olds GR, , 2002. New policies for using anthelmintics in high risk groups. Trends Parasitol 18: 381382.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  11. Geary TG, Woo K, McCarthy JS, Mackenzie CD, Horton J, Prichard RK, de Silva NR, Olliaro PL, Lazdins-Helds JK, Engels DA, Bundy DA, , 2010. Unresolved issues in anthelmintic pharmacology for helminthiases of humans. Int J Parasitol 40: 113.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  12. Garba A, Barkire N, Djibo A, Lamine MS, Sofo B, Gouvras AN, Bosque-Oliva E, Webster JP, Stothard JR, Utzinger J, Fenwick A, , 2010. Schistosomiasis in infants and preschool-aged children: infection in a single Schistosoma haematobium and a mixed S. haematobium-S. mansoni foci of Niger. Acta Trop 115: 212219.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  13. Bosompem KM, Bentum IA, Otchere J, Anyan WK, Brown CA, Osada Y, Takeo S, Kojima S, Ohta N, , 2004. Infant schistosomiasis in Ghana: a survey in an irrigation community. Trop Med Int Health 9: 917922.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  14. Dabo A, Badawi HM, Bary B, Doumbo OK, , 2011. Urinary schistosomiasis among preschool-aged children in Sahelian rural communities in Mali. Parasit Vectors 4: 21.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  15. N'Guessan NA, Acka CA, Utzinger J, N'Goran EK, , 2006. Identification des régions à haut risque de schistosomoses en Côte d'Ivoire. Bull Soc Pathol Exot 100: 119123. [Google Scholar]
  16. Coulibaly JT, Knopp S, N'Guessan NA, Silué KD, Fürst T, Lohourignon LK, Brou JK, N'Gbesso YK, Vounatsou P, N'Goran EK, Utzinger J, , 2011. Accuracy of urine circulating cathodic antigen (CCA) test for Schistosoma mansoni diagnosis in different settings of Côte d'Ivoire. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 5: e1384.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  17. Rollinson D, Knopp S, Levitz S, Stothard JR, Tchuem Tchuenté LA, Garba A, Mohammed KA, Schur N, Person B, Colley DG, Utzinger J, , 2012. Time to set the agenda for schistosomiasis elimination. Acta Trop, doi:10.1016/j.actatropica.2012.04.013. [Google Scholar]
  18. Coulibaly JT, N'Gbesso YK, Knopp S, Keiser J, N'Goran EK, Utzinger J, , 2012. Efficacy and safety of praziquantel in preschool-aged children in an area co-endemic for Schistosoma mansoni and S. haematobium . PLoS Negl Trop Dis 6: e1917.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  19. Katz N, Chaves A, Pellegrino J, , 1972. A simple device for quantitative stool thick-smear technique in schistosomiasis mansoni. Rev Inst Med Trop São Paulo 14: 397400. [Google Scholar]
  20. Farooq M, Mallah MB, , 1966. The behavioural pattern of social and religious water-contact activities in the Egypt-49 bilharziasis project area. Bull World Health Organ 35: 377387. [Google Scholar]
  21. Siegal FM, , 1968. Schistosomiasis hematobia in preschool children of Ibadan, Nigeria. Am J Trop Med Hyg 17: 737742. [Google Scholar]
  22. Abdel-Salam E, Abdel-Fattah M, , 1977. Prevalence and morbidity of Schistosoma haematobium in Egyptian children. A controlled study. Am J Trop Med Hyg 26: 463469. [Google Scholar]
  23. Perel Y, Sellin B, Perel C, Arnold P, Mouchet F, , 1985. Use of urine collectors for infants from 0 to 4 years of age in a mass survey of urinary schistosomiasis in Niger. Med Trop 45: 429433. [Google Scholar]
  24. Smith FM, , 1985. Bilharziasis in the African infant and child in the Mtoko, southern Rhodesia. Cent Afr J Med 4: 287288. [Google Scholar]
  25. Stothard JR, Sousa-Figueiredo JC, Betson M, Green HK, Seto EYW, Garba A, Sacko M, Mutapi F, Vaz Nery S, Amin MA, Mutumba-Nakalembe M, Navaratnam A, Fenwick A, Kabatereine NB, Gabrielli AF, Montresor A, , 2011. Closing the praziquantel treatment gap: new steps in epidemiological monitoring and control of schistosomiasis in African infants and preschool-aged children. Parasitology 138: 15931606.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  26. Keiser J, Ingram K, Utzinger J, , 2011. Antiparasitic drugs for paediatrics: systematic review, formulations, pharmacokinetics, safety, efficacy and implications for control. Parasitology 138: 16201632.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  27. Stothard JR, Gabrielli AF, , 2007. Schistosomiasis in African infants and preschool children: to treat or not to treat? Trends Parasitol 23: 8386.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  28. Sousa-Figueiredo JC, Basáñez MG, Mgeni AF, Khamis IS, Rollinson D, Stothard JR, , 2008. A parasitological survey, in rural Zanzibar, of pre-school children and their mothers for urinary schistosomiasis, soil-transmitted helminthiases and malaria, with observations on the prevalence of anaemia. Ann Trop Med Parasitol 102: 679692.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  29. Ekpo UF, Oluwole AS, Abe EM, Etta HE, Olamiju F, Mafiana CF, , 2012. Schistosomiasis in infants and pre-school-aged children in sub-Saharan Africa: implication for control. Parasitology 139: 835841.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  30. Johansen MV, Sacko M, Vennervald BJ, Kabatereine NB, , 2007. Leave children untreated and sustain inequity! Trends Parasitol 23: 568569.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  31. Sousa-Figueiredo JC, Pleasant J, Day M, Betson M, Rollinson D, Montresor A, Kazibwe F, Kabatereine NB, Stothard JR, , 2010. Treatment of intestinal schistosomiasis in Ugandan preschool children: best diagnosis, treatment efficacy and side-effects, and an extended praziquantel dosing pole. Int Health 2: 103113.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  32. Stothard JR, Sousa-Figueiredo JC, Betson M, Bustinduy A, Reinhard-Rupp J, , 2013. Schistosomiasis in African infants and preschool children: let them now be treated! Trends Parasitol 29: 197205.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  33. Ekpo UF, Laja-Deile A, Oluwole AS, Sam-Wobo SO, Mafiana CF, , 2010. Urinary schistosomiasis among preschool children in a rural community near Abeokuta, Nigeria. Parasit Vectors 3: 58.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  34. Namwanje H, Kabatereine NB, Olsen A, , 2011. The acceptability and safety of praziquantel alone and in combination with mebendazole in the treatment of Schistosoma mansoni and soil-transmitted helminthiasis in children aged 1–4 years in Uganda. Parasitology 138: 15861592.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  35. Hotez PJ, Engels D, Fenwick A, Savioli L, , 2010. Africa is desperate for praziquantel. Lancet 376: 496498.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  36. Stothard JR, Sousa-Figuereido JC, Betson M, Adriko M, Arinaitwe M, Rowell C, Besiyge F, Kabatereine NB, , 2011. Schistosoma mansoni infections in young children: when are schistosome antigens in urine, eggs in stool and antibodies to eggs first detectable? PLoS Negl Trop Dis 5: e938.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  37. Odogwu SE, Ramamurthy NK, Kabatereine NB, Kazibwe F, Tukahebwa E, Webster JP, Fenwick A, Stothard JR, , 2006. Schistosoma mansoni in infants (aged < 3 years) along the Ugandan shoreline of Lake Victoria. Ann Trop Med Parasitol 100: 315326.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  38. Sabah AA, Fletcher C, Webbe G, Doenhoff MJ, , 1986. Schistosoma mansoni: chemotherapy of infections of different ages. Exp Parasitol 61: 294303.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  39. King CH, , 2010. Parasites and poverty: the case of schistosomiasis. Acta Trop 113: 95104.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  40. Kariuki HC, Clennon JA, Brady MS, Kitron U, Sturrock RF, Ouma JH, Ndzovu ST, Mungai P, Hoffman O, Hamburger J, Pellegrini C, Muchiri EM, King CH, , 2004. Distribution patterns and cercarial shedding of Bulinus nasutus and other snails in the Msambweni area, Coast province, Kenya. Am J Trop Med Hyg 70: 449456. [Google Scholar]
  41. Clennon JA, King CH, Muchiri EM, Kitron U, , 2007. Hydrological modeling of snail dispersal patterns in Msambweni, Kenya and potential resurgence of Schistosoma haematobium transmission. Parasitology 134: 683693.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  42. Tchuem Tchuenté LA, Southgate VR, Webster BL, De Bont J, Vercruysse J, , 2001. Impact of installation of a water pump on schistosomiasis transmission in a focus in Cameroon. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 95: 255256.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]

Data & Media loading...

  • Received : 31 May 2012
  • Accepted : 19 Jan 2013
  • Published online : 10 Jul 2013

Most Cited This Month

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error