Volume 88, Issue 3
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645



We conducted serological surveys for in archived sera from patients that visited a rural clinic in western Kenya from 2007 to 2008 and in cattle, sheep, and goats from the same area in 2009. We also conducted serological and polymerase chain reaction-based surveillance for the pathogen in 2009–2010, in human patients with acute lower respiratory illness, in ruminants following parturition, and in ticks collected from ruminants and domestic dogs. Antibodies against were detected in 30.9% ( = 246) of archived patient sera and in 28.3% ( = 463) of cattle, 32.0% ( = 378) of goats, and 18.2% ( = 159) of sheep surveyed. Four of 135 (3%) patients with acute lower respiratory illness showed seroconversion to . The pathogen was detected by polymerase chain reaction in specimens collected from three of six small ruminants that gave birth within the preceding 24 hours, and in five of 10 pools (50%) of ticks collected from domestic dogs.

[open-access] This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene's Re-use License which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


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  • Received : 15 Mar 2012
  • Accepted : 15 Dec 2012
  • Published online : 06 Mar 2013

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