Volume 88, Issue 4
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645



In 2007, the first free mass distribution of insecticide-treated bed nets (ITNs) occurred in southern Zambia. To determine the effect of ITNs on heterogeneity in biting rates, human DNA from blood meals was genotyped to determine the number of hosts that had contributed to the blood meals. The multiple feeding rate decreased from 18.9% pre-ITN to 9.1% post-ITN, suggesting that mosquito biting had focused onto a smaller fraction of the population. Pre-ITN, 20% of persons in a household provided 40% of blood meals, which increased to 59% post-ITN. To measure heterogeneity over a larger scale, mosquitoes were collected in 90 households in two village areas. Of these households, 25% contributed 78.1% of , and households with high frequencies of were significantly spatially clustered. The results indicate that substantial heterogeneity in malaria risk exists at local and household levels, and household-level heterogeneity may be influenced by interventions, such as ITNs.


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  • Received : 22 Sep 2011
  • Accepted : 28 Jul 2012
  • Published online : 03 Apr 2013

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